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Utah Historical Quarterly Current Issue

Volume 82, Number 4 (Fall Issue):

Utah’s history is more diverse than you think! Check out the Fall 2014 issue of the Utah Historical Quarterly to learn more about where Utah has been, and how we’ve come to where we are today. Join the Historical Society for your own copy.




A “Distinction between Mormons and Americans”: Mormon Indian Missionaries, Federal Indian Policy, and the Utah War
By Brent M. Rogers

A Long Course of the Most Inhuman Cruelty: The Abuse and Murder of Isaac Whitehouse
By Noel A. Carmack

Water Law on the Eve of Statehood: Israel Bennion and a Conflict in Vernon, 1893–1896
By John Bennion

Setting the Ute Photographic Record Straight through Google’s Picasa Face Recognition Tool
By Beth Simmons

Highway 89 Digital Collections
By Jim Kichas





From traffic violations to weightier questions of domestic life and land use, laws and regulations fill the lives of everyday, contemporary Utahns. So too did laws circumscribe and inform the world of nineteenth-century Utah. In that historical setting, things ecclesiastical often became entangled with things civil. For many years after the settlement of the Salt Lake Valley in 1847 by members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, distinctive Mormon practices, institutions, and laws played a critical part in the governance of Utah. People outside the LDS church soon chafed at this arrangement. Much of the fall 2014 issue of Utah Historical Quarterly explores the place of law in society and illuminates Utah’s church and state conundrum.

Volumes of legal material exist regarding the relationship between governmental entities and Native Americans. In the words of Francis Paul Prucha, from the origins of the United States to the present, “Indians as tribes or as individuals have been persistently in the consciousness of officials of all three branches of the federal government.” [1] In 1850s Utah, another player—the LDS church—complicated the already difficult relationship between the government and the tribes. The LDS church and the federal government had separate, at times competing, policies regarding Great Basin Indians. Those policies could have very real effects on the ground. In our first article, Brent Rogers explores how federal officials perceived Mormons to be dangerously at odds with “Americans” in their dealings with indigenous peoples. Critically, the president had the legal backing to enforce federal law in relation to Native Americans; as Rogers writes, “Indian policy emerged as a crucial factor in the federal government’s effort to assert national power and authority in Utah Territory in the 1850s.”

The second article in this issue moves from the world of presidents and governors to provide an entirely different look at Utah in the 1850s and how behavior at home affects the most vulnerable of people: children. It presents the story of Isaac Whitehouse, a boy with disabilities who suffered terrible abuse—and, on one fall evening in 1855, a violent death—at the hands of his caretakers. Noel Carmack documents the injustices of the case: following his conviction for the boy’s murder, Samuel G. Baker served only two months in the territorial penitentiary after being pardoned by Brigham Young—a move Judge William Drummond found to be an affront to the rule of law in Utah. But Carmack reveals complex forces at work in the case and raises interesting, and surprising, questions about the intersection of religion, community, and domestic responsibility in early Utah.

As the third article attests, toward the end of the nineteenth century the loosening of LDS ecclesiastical control in Utah—in this case, over the distribution and management of water—contributed to bitter conflict in some Mormon villages. The angst over water is understandable: even in a state endowed with heavy snowpack and healthy runoff, then—and now—water scarcity was an issue of central concern. Slow to adopt the system of prior appropriation (“first in time, first in right”), Mormons had operated under a communitarian system of water management since their arrival in the Salt Lake Valley. Some second-generation Mormons, faced with state regulation and private ownership of water, desperately attempted to retain control of the resource. John Bennion documents one conflict in Utah’s Rush Valley that pitted men, otherwise bound together by ecclesiastical responsibilities and familial ties, against one another.

By 1881, conflict and anti-Indian furor had led to the relocation of certain Ute bands from Colorado to Utah. Many photographs document the Utes of the era, especially the principal players in these episodes. Unfortunately, the people in such photographs are often misidentified. Our fourth article shows how technology can assist in the study of history. In it, Beth Simmons uses a newly (and freely) available tool—face recognition software—to pin down the identities of Utes whose images were captured in an 1870s stereograph. Simmons’s article provides a fitting coda for the state historical society’s sixty-second annual meeting, which was held this September and focused on the place of technology in Utah’s past.

[1] Francis Paul Prucha, The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians, abridged ed. (1984; Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1986), ix.


Elizabeth O. Anderson, ed.
Cowboy Apostle: The Diaries of Anthony W. Ivins, 1875–1932
Reviewed by Kristen Iversen

Val Holley
25th Street Confidential: Drama, Decadence, and Dissipation along Ogden’s Rowdiest Road
Reviewed by Heidi Orchard

Todd M. Compton
A Frontier Life: Jacob Hamblin, Explorer and Indian Missionary
Reviewed by Richard W. Sadler

Jedediah S. Rogers
Roads in the Wilderness: Conflict in Canyon Country
Reviewed by Clint Pumphrey

Edward Dorn; Matthew Hofer, ed.
The Shoshoneans: The People of the Basin-Plateau
Reviewed by Robert S. McPherson

Michael Hittman
Great Basin Indians: An Encyclopedia History
Reviewed by John D. Barton


Eileen Hallet Stone
Hidden History of Utah

William Shepard and H. Michael Marquardt
Lost Apostles: Forgotten Members of Mormonism’s Original Quorum of Twelve

Jeff Terry, Thornton H. Waite, and James J. Reisdorff
The Un-Driving of the Golden Spike

Aaron McArthur
St. Thomas, Nevada: A History Uncovered

Research Center

Inside the Utah History Research Center

Inside the Utah History Research Center

Our Research Center contains a treasure trove of Utah history.

The Research Center of Utah State Archives and Utah State History provides public access to state holdings.  Our friendly and knowledgeable staff can help you research historical records from private, public, and government sources. Access to the Research Center and staff assistance are free.

Except for some microfilms, materials are not available for checkout.


The Research Center is located in the Rio Grande Depot at 300 S. Rio Grande Street,  Salt Lake City, UT 84101.   map

Hours and contact

The Research Center is open  Monday through Friday, 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 pm. Closed Saturday and Sunday.  Phone: 801-245-7227. Email:

Ask a research question

Fill out our form here.


Research Center staff can make copies for you. See our list of copy charges.


The Research Center staff will be glad to provide training to your group on many research topics and methods that will assist members of your group in using our collections.

Digital Resources from the Utah Division of State History

The Utah Division of State History (State History) has many online resources available to the public for research purposes. Some of our current digital resources include:

State History resources digitized in partnership with U of U Marriott Library:

Digital photos:  70,000 historical photos online at

Newspapers:  300,000 newspaper pages scanned and on Utah Digital Newspapers,   These newspapers cover crucial periods of Utah history.

  • Salt Lake Telegram:  1867, 1902, 1907-1912, 1914-1949
  • Ephraim Enterprise:  1891-1972
  • Inter-Mountain Republican: 1906-1909
  • Manti Messenger:  1893-1973
  • Salt Lake Herald:  1870-1920

Archaeological site records: 35,000 records online, available for licensed archaeologists

Publications: 47,000 pages online at

Complete copies of these periodicals:

  • Utah Historical Quarterly—scholarly  journal published since 1928
  • Beehive History—magazine with short, interesting stories published from 1974-2002
  • History Blazer—brief history anecdotes published as part of Utah’s centennial celebration, 1995-1996
  • Utah Archaeology—annual professional journal published by State History and partners
  • Antiquities Section Selected Papers—a monograph series examining the prehistoric cultures of Utah
  • Utah Preservation—historic preservation magazine published annually 1997-2007

Complete copies of these books:

  • 29 Centennial County Histories—A volume on each county published as part of Utah’s centennial celebration
  • A Way of Seeing: Discovering the Art of Building in Spring City, Utah
  • Brigham Street
  • Building by the Railyard
  • Carbon County: Eastern Utah’s Industrialized Island
  • Corinne—The Gentile Capital of Utah
  • Emery County: Reflections on Its Past and Future
  • First 100 Years: A History of the Salt Lake Tribune
  • Historic Buildings of Downtown Salt Lake City
  • Let ‘Em Holler: A Political Biography of J. Bracken Lee
  • Not by Bread Alone: The Journal of Martha Spence Heywood
  • Of Work and Romance: Discovering Utah’s Barns
  • On the Ragged Edge: The Life and Times of Dudley Leavitt
  • San Juan County, Utah: People, Resources, and History
  • The Architecture of Fort Douglas, Utah, 1862-1995
  • The Avenues of Salt Lake City
  • The Peoples of Utah
  • Utah’s Historic Architecture, 1847-1940

Other State History digital resources:

Cemeteries and burials:  information on nearly 600,000 deceased persons online at . This database was named by Family Tree magazine as one of 2013’s best state-run genealogy websites. Visitors may also go to directly.

Information on researching and rehabilitating historic buildings at

Catalogs and indexes to research library, manuscripts, phone directories, newspapers, and yearbooks at

Markers and monuments:  text from historical markers statewide at

Sister Agency Resources Digitized by Marriott Library

  • State Fine Art Collection
  • State Folk Art Collection
  • Utah American Indian Digital Archive:  Articles, books, documents, oral histories, photographs, and maps on Utah’s tribes at
  • Microfiche:  6,000 sheets of microfiche for State Library
  • Utah State Bulletin:  digitized and online at State Library

1948′s Unforgettable Winter

To view this video in full screen mode, click the icon in the bottom right of the screen

Do you have your own story of the winter of 1948-1949? Send it to us! Send your memories to

Winter’s fun (right?). But sometimes you can have too much of a good thing.

Salt Lake City Main Street 1949 covered in snow

Salt Lake City Main Street, 1949

In 1948-49, the most severe winter on record beat up the West. Even Las Vegas got 17 inches of snow. Though other winters saw more snow, wind, extreme cold, and little thawing made the snow pile up. And up. And up. Think about that next time you want to complain about winter!

Three days of ferocious snow

Early in January 1949, a vicious three-day blizzard broke windows, damaged roofs, and blew snowdrifts six to ten feet high on roads and streets. After that the temperature fell to below zero. The drifts crusted so hard that snowplow crews struggled to remove them. Sardine Canyon, between Brigham City and Cache Valley, stayed closed for a month. People got stranded, even in Salt Lake City–18 families in Salt Lake’s Canyon Rim area had to be dug out.

Livestock starved and froze. The state launched “Operation Haylift,” dropping bales of hay from military cargo planes. The Sons of Utah Pioneers, perhaps thinking of the next year’s hunt, lobbied for the state to also feed deer, pheasants, ducks, and quail. Meanwhile, skaters took advantage of strong ice at the Liberty Park pond, and children played on the huge snowdrifts.

Another blizzard

Snow Plows in Utah, 1948

Snow Plows in Utah, 1948

On January 15, another blizzard struck, bringing more minus temperatures. Some people had a novel–and irrational–idea: The city should truck in salt water from the Great Salt Lake or water from hot springs to melt the snow on the streets.

And another, big-time!

Then on January 22 the mother of all blizzards roared in. Wind-whipped snow and slides closed roads all over the state. In Millard County, where the snow drifted as high as the telephone wires, a couple of men spent 36 hours stranded in a truck waiting for a snowplow to dig them out. Avalanches trapped skiers at Alta and Brighton–though a few decided to simply ski down Little Cottonwood Canyon to the valley.

A TRULY big chill

After the storm quit, the cold air hit: -25 degrees in Salt Lake City. Woodruff reached -45. Schools all over the Wasatch Front closed because gas supplies could not meet the demand. Coal companies could not deliver coal, and Utah Power and Light cut the power to its generators. The big freeze continued for several days, and then again on February 5, headlines read: “New Blizzard Throttles Utah.” And so it went, snowing all the way into April. The one thaw came in late February, and it brought its own miseries: flooding. An ice jam dammed a canal, flooding houses around 800 West and between 1300 and 1700 South.

Yep, it was a hard winter, but people rose to the occasion. They did what needed to be done. And many were heroic in their efforts to help others get through a bitter cold time.

From Mark Eubank

We asked meteorologist Mark Eubank if 1948-49 was the snowiest winter on record. It was not. Here is what he said:

First, let’s talk about WHEN we get the snow.

Winter is a specific period comprising three months or about 90 days. Meteorologically, winter includes the months of December, January, and February. Since it can also snow in the Fall and in the Spring we have a snowfall year, which typically runs from September through May. So when we say a certain season was extra snowy, we need to define the time period.

Most people tend to think of the “winter” season (December thru February) when they remember stormy years. I think that is true because much of the Spring snow melts quickly.

Winners of the “Most Snow” award:

Here is a list showing the top five “winters” and the top five “snowfall years.”

Snowiest Utah “Winters” Snowiest Utah “Snowfall Years”


     Snowfall                      Sep-Jun       Snowfall























The top two snowfall years had heavy Winter snows PLUS a lot of snow in Fall and Spring.

The Winter of 1992-93 was exceptional. In fact, it ranks at number one, plus there was a lot of snow in the Fall.

Cold + snow is what we remember

The reason the Winter of 1948-49 is so noteworthy is because the snowfall was accompanied with exceptional cold! In fact, 1948-49 is the combined coldest-snowiest Winter ever measured in Utah. That combination kept the snow around for most of the Winter, and in addition the wind blew the snow into huge drifts.

Winters in Utah can be cold and dry, or cold and wet. Or they can be warm and dry or warm and wet. The warm and wet Winters are quickly forgotten, but the cold and wet Winters are the ones that leave lasting impressions.

While the Winter of 1992-93 was the snowiest, it didn’t even rank in the top 15 for cold.

Winners of the “coldest” weather award:

Coldest Utah Winters

  Dec-Feb   Snowfall Avg Temp























Post by Kristen Rogers-Iversen, Associate Director, State History

Cemeteries & Burials

PLEASE NOTE: If you find an error in the database, please contact the cemetery, so that the official record can be corrected. To ensure that our database matches the official record, we do not correct records in the database unless the update comes from a cemetery. 

The Utah State Cemeteries and Burials database is used by cemeteries, researchers, genealogists, and individuals to locate the sites of burials and cemeteries throughout the state. We work with all cemeteries throughout the state to make this information available to the public in one comprehensive location.

Weeping Angel Tombstone, Mount Olivet Cemetery, Salt Lake City, Utah

Weeping Angel Tombstone


Search for a person buried in Utah.

Find a cemetery in Utah, or view a list of cemeteries.

Search death certificates from 1900-1960 (outside web site)


The Utah Cemeteries and Burials Database is recognized by Family Tree Magazine as one of the Best State Web Sites for family history research.



About the data collection

This state database contains names and other information about people who are buried in Utah cemeteries. Data is collected in three ways:

1. We give small grants to cemeteries to help them digitize sexton records. (Cemeteries do not computerize the information on grave markers). The cemeteries then submit the data to the database.

2. We encourage cemeteries that already have their records in digital format to donate their data to the database.

3. Private groups and individuals sometimes offer to survey a cemetery. If you would like to do this, please see our tips for cemetery volunteers. You must have permission from the cemetery and contact us about format requirements and the submission process. We will not accept data unless they are in the proper format.

4. Access to the database is free to the public through our online search. We do not offer back-end access or data files. If you would like a cemetery’s complete database record, please contact the cemetery directly. 

5. Data is provided by cemeteries. If you find an error in the database, please contact the cemetery to verify the information and ask them to send us an update. We are unable to correct individual records without the cemetery’s updated file.

For cemeteries wishing to submit data, please refer to our submission guidelines, and contact Kevin Fayles, 801-245-7254 for more information.

Contact us

For information about the Cemeteries and Burials Database, contact:

Kevin Fayles
Fax: 801-533-3503

For grant information, contact:
Debbie Dahl
Fax: 801-533-3503

Preservation Pro Update: October 22, 2013

Utah Division of State History
Preservation Pro Update
October 22nd, 2013

This memo is intended to update Preservation Pro users and our agency partners on what the archaeology records staff has been working on and completed during the recent months.

General Stats:

  • Archaeological report spatial data uploaded August-September 2013: 310
  • Archaeological site spatial data uploaded August-September: 464
  • Site forms scanned in August-September: 1800 (focused on Uintah County).

Site Form Access Bug

We’ve received numerous reports concerning issues accessing site forms scans- thank you for the feedback.  Our IT staff is reportedly exploring the issue and searching for a solution.  In the interim, if you are needing one or two site forms from counties already scanned (BE, BO, CA, DA, DC, DV, GR, IN, UN) please contact archrecords and we’ll see what we can do.  We encourage anyone experiencing the issue to “report a bug” via the feedback tab to escalate the issue.

Site form scanning update:

We are currently working on scanning Uintah County.  This county was chosen due to the high traffic these records are receiving.  We are over 50% complete with that county.  Our Department recently purchased a high volume scanner to expedite the project.  We currently have nine counties (BE, BO, CA, CB, DA, DC, DV, GR, and IN) scanned.

Additional Preservation Pro development update: 

Last month we were finally able to get a ‘landownership’ identifier added to the system.  We hope it’s been of use.  If you have other functionality you’d like to see added please use the “report request feature” in the feedback tab.

Preservation Pro and the Proposed “New IMACS”

We are currently preparing for the potential rollout of new site recording standards and forms in Utah.  Given the large changes to the form, and our software and financial constraints, we’ll be significantly modifying the data we retain in Preservation Pro.  Our focus will be on providing digital site forms (pdf) and basic tabular data on every submitted site.  In working with key agencies we feel this will add more value to the system.  More information is coming- but if you have questions please feel free to contact us.

New Records Email Address:

For those of you who haven’t heard, we’ve recently launched a new email address for records needs:  This is a group email address that we hope will provide quicker and better service for records needs.  Please update your email address book.

Send us your shapefiles!

Thank you to all who have generously responded to our requests for spatial data.  We continue to accept digital spatial data as an addition to your usual paper-based submission packet.  A CD or other portable media attached to the report is best (addressed to us), but we can be flexible on other the delivery methods.  We know such submissions were discouraged in the past, but change is here!

Selected Glossary of Real Estate Terms

(Used in Property Records/Title Abstracts)

Bargain and Sale Deed (B&S Deed)     
Deed that conveys the land described therein, but without any warranties whatsoever.

An instrument in writing that, when executed by the grantor and delivered to the grantee, conveys the described real estate from the one to the other.  Generic “deeds” are not commonly used; “warranty deeds” are more common (see below).

The right, privilege, or interest that one party has in the land of another; an encumbrance or limitation on the property.  It is extinguished by release, abandonment, or when the necessity no longer exists (e.g., right-of-way for road, driveway, etc.).

A person to whom real estate is conveyed; a buyer.

A person who conveys real estate by deed; a seller.

A written legal document created to effect the rights and liabilities of the parties (e.g., deed, mortgage, lien, etc.).

A special encumbrance; a charge against property whereby property is made security for the payment of a debt or charges such as a judgment, a mortgage or taxes; a lien is an asset and therefore may be assigned.  Often used by suppliers and contractors who have not been paid.

Lis Pendens
Suit pending.  Usually recorded in order to give notice of pending litigation to potential buyers or lenders.

Mayor’s Deed (MD)
Deed given under the original dispersal of the property in a town by the mayor.

Mortgage (Mtge)
A written instrument recognized by law by which real property is pledged to secure a debt or obligation; a lien on real property.

Quitclaim Deed (QCD)
Deed given when the grantee already has, or claims, complete or partial title to the premises and grantor has a possible interest that otherwise would constitute a cloud upon the title. (Not used for conveyance purposes.)

A measure of length containing 16-1/2 feet.  A term often used in older legal descriptions of property.  Another archaic term is “chain,” which is 100 feet.

Sheriff’s Deed
A deed given when property is sold by court order to satisfy a judgment.

Tax Deed
A deed given by the tax collector to the county and which terminates all rights of redemption.

Tax Sale
Sale of property after a period of nonpayment of taxes.

Tax Title
The title by which one holds lands purchased at a tax sale.

Trust Deed (TD)
A conveyance of real estate to a third person to be held for the benefit of a beneficiary, which is ordinarily repayment of a loan made to the trustor; similar to a mortgage.

Warranty Deed (WD)
The most common type of deed used to transfer property.  It contains a covenant that the grantor will protect the grantee against any claimant; contains covenants of title against encumbrances and of quiet enjoyment.

Utah Historical Quarterly Summer 2014

Volume 82, Number 2 (Summer Issue):

Utah’s history is more diverse than you think! Check out the Summer 2014 issue of the Utah Historical Quarterly to learn more about where Utah has been, and how we’ve come to where we are today. Join the Historical Society for your own copy.



Cover of the UHQ Summer 2014

This Was the Place: The Making and Unmaking of Utah
By Jared Farmer

William Hope Harvey and the Ogden Mardi Gras
By Val Holley

A Personal Tribute to the “Real” Historic Twenty-Fifth Street
By Fred Seppi

Conquering the Black Ridge: The Communitarian Road in Pioneer Utah
By Todd Compton

The Palmer and Driggs Collections at Southern Utah University
By Janet Seegmiller

The history of Utah—and the very human desire to understand the past—has kept the staff of Utah Historical Quarterly busy for more than eighty-five years. As the new director of the Division of State History and as the editor of the Quarterly, I see Utah’s history as Tip O’Neill saw politics: it’s all local. In other words, the success of the Quarterly is tied to our ability to understand, listen, and respond to you, the reader, and to the citizens of Utah.

With this in mind, during the last year we have reached out to Utah’s leaders, to our readers, and to the broad history-loving community in Utah, and we have decided to make some changes to UHQ. In addition to long research articles—which will always constitute the bulk of the Quarterly—we will periodically publish essays, primary documents, updates from archives around the state, and a historic image spotlight, among other features. This issue, for instance, includes information about two valuable collections at Southern Utah University and a charming photograph from a party held in the midst of the Great Depression. Most noticeably, the Quarterly has a fresh, new graphic design. Throughout its long history, UHQ has gone through several redesigns, the last in 2000; a gallery of representative covers is available online (see below).

The Summer 2014 issue of UHQ also marks our first effort to present a mixture of web and print material, with an extended version of Jared Farmer’s essay, “The Making and Unmaking of Utah.” The online version of this piece contains nearly one hundred images that support Farmer’s text and tell stories in a way that print cannot match. Look for web extras at the end of this and other articles. This is a humble beginning to what we hope will become a robust online resource for those who love accessible, thoughtful history.

We have reorganized the Quarterly’s office into two equal and complementary sections. Dr. Holly George will remain largely responsible for print content, and Dr. Jedediah S. Rogers—who joined UHQ’s staff as this issue went to press—will pursue digital content. Both sides of the Quarterly will be offered as a seamless reading experience.

Though much is changing with UHQ, much will stay the same. We remain especially committed to publishing peer-reviewed articles that explore the breadth and depth of Utah’s past. For instance, in addition to the pieces mentioned above, this issue features three articles that offer something of a variation on the theme of the “making of Utah.” In our second article, Val Holley tells the story of William Hope Harvey, a booster determined to draw attention to Ogden by mounting a lavish Mardi Gras celebration there in 1890. The third article carries the history of Ogden forward to the mid-twentieth century, with the reminiscences of Fred Seppi about his childhood experience of watching life on Twenty-Fifth Street. Finally, Todd Compton describes the struggles of nineteenth-century pioneers to build a road through the Black Ridge area of southern Utah.

Web extra: View UHQ’s past graphic designs at


John L. Kessell
Miera y Pacheco: A Renaissance Spaniard in Eighteenth-Century New Mexico
Reviewed by Steven K. Madsen

Allan Kent Powell, ed.
Nels Anderson’s World War I Diary

Reviewed by Douglas D. Alder

Robert S. McPherson, Jim Dandy, and Sarah E. Burak
Navajo Tradition, Mormon Life: The Autobiography and Teachings of Jim Dandy
Reviewed by Farina King

Linda Scarangella McNenly
Native Performers in Wild West Shows: From Buffalo Bill to Euro Disney
Reviewed by Robert S. McPherson

Allen V. Parkham and Steven R. Evans
Lewis and Clark among the Nez Perce: Strangers in the Land of the Nimiipuu
Reviewed by John D. Barton