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Archaeology Publications

Are you interested in Utah Archaeology? Utah Archaeology is an annual publication of USAS, UPAC, and the Utah Division of State History. The journal focuses on prehistoric and historic archaeological research relevant to Utah.

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Modernism at the University of Utah

Editors’ Note: Bim Oliver, author of “Modernism on Campus: Architecture at the University of Utah, 1945-1975,” offers here information on mid-century university building plans that never materialized. Through the process of researching modernism at the University of Utah, Oliver compiled a list of quotations that reveal a light, humorous side of university officials–and these are reproduced below. Finally, we offer additional photographs that didn’t make it into the published article.


Projects That Didn’t Materialize

Like many of the buildings in the post-World War II era, Merrill Engineering was constructed in phases.

The building that exists constitutes the first three phases of the project, completed in relatively short order starting in the late 1950s. But the original concept for the engineering center also envisioned both a circular auditorium and a six-story classroom building. The former was dropped early on, but the classroom building remained an integral part of the center’s design as “Phase IV.” It was never constructed, however, due to lack of funding. Image 3

As the Olpin Union was nearing completion, the Campus Planning Committee contemplated the construction of a “campanile” (bell tower) in the open space just south of the new building. “The campus badly needs some symbol indicative of education that will complete the triangle within the city,” the committee observed in 1958, “i.e., the capitol dome represents State government, the temple, religion and perhaps a campanile to represent education, and which can be plainly seen just as the other two elements are.” Although the campanile was never built, the Social and Behavioral Sciences Building eventually served as the landmark envisioned by the committee. Image 4

The bookstore today occupies the same site that it occupied in the years following World War II. Busy as it is today, it was considered of secondary significance by university planners. More to the point, they felt that its location was better suited for “a heavy use faculty, administrative or academic use.” So they considered two primary alternatives: a new building north of the Union and a structure between the Union and Orson Spencer Hall, “designed as an underground facility, with the floor level approximately the same as the level of the major academic mall.” Due to funding limitations, however, neither was constructed.

As noted in the related article, the primary funder of Pioneer Memorial Theater, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, asked the architects to draw up plans for Pioneer Memorial Theater as a structure that replicated the Salt Lake Theater that had been located downtown for several decades. An early drawing shows this replica that was later dispensed with in favor of a more Modernist design that better accommodated the technical requirements of the theater. Image 5

There were other proposals—some conceptual, some refined—that would have significantly changed the character of campus:

  • Two campus planning maps from 1959 and 1960 showed the library as an octagon and a circle, respectively, rather than the square that exists today. As the design was finalized, administrators suggested etching inspirational quotations into the cast-stone panels that enclosed the library, an idea rejected by the architects.
  • Early site plans and renderings of the plaza to the east of the Social and Behavioral Sciences Building envisioned an elaborate fountain.
  • An architect’s rendering of the Eccles Health Sciences Library included an expansive plaza between the library to the east, the Medical Center to the north, and the College of Pharmacy to the south.
  • Options for the medical towers and townhouses south of the Medical Center included the use of Sunset Tower (recently completed at 40 South 900 East), as well as a much larger complex on the current site that would have incorporated a varying configuration of high rises and lower “garden type” apartments.
  • In the late 1960s, as the university sought to increase its supply of married student housing, planners considered developing over 200 units at the mouth of Red Butte Canyon.
  • A primary goal during the post-World War II era was to concentrate academic buildings near the center of campus. One concept considered for achieving this goal was to construct two 14-story structures—one for the Chemistry Department and one for the Physics Department. As one planner noted, however, “Shoehorning two such units into that restricted area would be most difficult, as well as visually unpleasant.”
  • Early renderings and models for the Medical Center, Special Events Center, College of Pharmacy, and Physics Building reflect significantly different design ideas than those that were actually constructed.

Humorous Quotes from Author’s Research Notes

  • “This will be a place where future wives will be trained on how to turn out the hash without burning it.” (W.J. O’Connor, chair of the Board of Regents, at the October 1951 groundbreaking for the Sterling Sill Home Living Center)
  • “At an earlier date, I received a memo from you posing the hazard that the rocks to the east of the Union Building and Orson Spencer Hall could be if we were to have a riot on campus.” (Memo from B. Blain Bradford to Bruce H. Jensen in July of 1970)
  • “Most people would agree that the fountain (Tanner Fountain across the plaza from the library) seems to be attracting the ‘undesirable’ hippie type clientele who are oftentimes quite dirty and unkempt.” (Memo from J Elroy Jones in July of 1970) Image 1
  • “Dean Hiner (College of Pharmacy) said his faculty could get along with anybody; however, if it (the site for the new College of Pharmacy building) went to the Medical Center he wanted it understood that his profession was a dignified profession and was not to be browbeaten by the Medics.” (Memo from Martin Brixen in March of 1958)
  • “Since the development of married student housing will cut out about four holes on the golf course, it was decided that detailed plans should be drawn up as quickly as possible in order that it could be explained to the Fort Douglas Club people.” (Minutes of the Planning Committee in August of 1956)
  • Avard Fairbanks first dean of the College of Fine Arts (reacting to the emergence of Modernist ideas on campus): “The corruption of art students’ principles stems from being exposed to foreign art manglers, the subversive doctrine of [-]isms, Communist-inspired and Communist-connected. These influences have one boasted goal: the destruction of our cultural tradition and priceless heritage.” (quoted in Anne Palmer Peterson. Years of Promise: The University of Utah’s A. Ray Olpin Era, 1946-1964. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press, 2009.)
  • Orson Spencer Hole (Utah Daily Chronicle, April 17, 1956) Image 2

Photo Gallery

Image 1. Tanner Fountain. Courtesy of University of Utah Archives.

Image 2. From the Utah Daily Chronicle, April 17, 1956. Courtesy of Utah Digital Newspapers.

Image 3. This initial concept for the Merrill Engineering Center included a circular auditorium and six-story classroom building. Courtesy of University of Utah Marriott Library Special Collections.

 

 

Image 4. The original plans for the Union building included a “campanile” or bell tower in the area to the south of the building. Courtesy of University of Utah Archives.

Image 5. An early rendering of Pioneer Memorial Theater as a replica of the Salt Lake Theater. Courtesy of University of Utah Archives.

 

Board of State History

Meeting Agenda
Thursday, April 20, 2017, 12:00 – 3:00 pm
Senate Office Building, State Capitol Complex, Olmsted Room, Salt Lake City, UT

TIME:  Noon – working lunch for Board members, hosted by State History

12:15 p.m. – WELCOME – Dina Blaes, Chair

JANUARY – MARCH STATE HISTORY PROGRAM ACCOMPLISHMENTS

Brad Westwood (5 min
1. Natl. Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers and Rep. Rob Bishop
2. Central Utah Water Conservancy District’s “Water, Agriculture & Urban Growth” history

Roger Roper – Historic Preservation (5 min)
1. CLG grants awarded for 2017-18: 18 grants for a total of $175,000.
2. Hosting of Association for Preservation Technology (APT) regional conference.
3. State Tax Credit projects for 2016: final numbers and dollar amounts.
4. National Award given to SHPO by the Federal Aviation Administration.

Wendy Rex-Atzet – History Day (5 min)
1. 10 regional contests concluded March 25th. 1500 students participated.
2. State Contest Sat., April 29, Hillcrest Jr. High (Murray). 400 students expected; judged needed.
3. 6,500 student participation statewide 2016-17 (an increase of over 1,000).
4. National contest coming up June 11-15.
5. Teaching Utah history with primary sources.

Doug Misner – Library and Collections (5 min)
1. Completed Salt Lake Tribune Photo Negative Collection digitization project. Placed 171,000 new images online. (Total images now available over 250,000.)
2. Loaned USS Utah clock to the Lt. Governor’s office.
3. Completed inventory of loaned artifacts housed at the Governor’s Mansion.
4. With Dept. of Veterans & Military Affairs, created displays for two WWI-related events.
5. Completed contract for new collection mgmt. system. Goal: go live in July.

Chris Merritt or Arie Leeflang – Antiquities (5 min)
1. Hosted Biennial National Park Service Coordination Meeting.
2. GIS/Records staff created 3 maps for Maps on the Hill event at state capitol.
3. Organized annual Archaeological Consultants Meeting in Price.
4. Supported Archaeological Conservancy’s development of Smith Rock Art Preserve.

Jed Rogers, Holly George – Utah Historical Quarterly (5 min)
1. Entered into partnership with U of U’s Dept. of History and BYU’s Charles Redd Center.
2. Participated on WWI commemoration committee.
3. Edited Utah Humanities’ Smithsonian booklet accompanying exhibition The Way We Worked.
4. Assisted the K-12 Utah History Working Group.
5. Spring 2017 UHQ guest-edited themed issue on architecture.

Kevin Fayles – Communications (10 min)
1.Website & Social Media
2. Cemeteries and burials program. 1,327 burials added.  4,484 burials updated (662,461 total burials)
3. 2017 Events

ACTION ITEMS 

  1. Approval of the January 19 2017 Board of State History Meeting Minutes – Dina Blaes
    (Board motion required) (3 min)
  2. Proposed Awards Policy update – Jed Rogers (5 min)
  3. National Register of Historic Places Nominations – Cory Jensen (25 min)
    (Board motion required)
    National Register of Historic Places Nominations Summaries
    a) The Harold W. and Evelyn Burton House
    b) Granite Schools Campus
    c) The Johnson Ranch House
    d) The Robert Gardner, Jr House

DISCUSSION ITEMS

4. National Register Approval to Move for the Zion National Park monuments – Cory Jensen (3 min)
No motion required, for Board’s information

5. Committee reports – David Rich Lewis, David Richardson, Steve Olsen, Michael Homer (20 min)

6. Proposed Museum for History, Heritage and Arts update – Dina Blaes, Brad Westwood (10 min)

7. Legislative briefing – Roger Roper (5 min)

8. Negro Bill Canyon briefing – Arie Leeflang (5 min)

9. Metrics, KPI’s, monthly reports – Kevin Fayles (10 min)

10. State History Annual Conference – Brad Westwood, Dina Blaes (5 min)

TRAINING

Open and Public Meetings Act – Thom Roberts (10 min)

 OTHER BUSINESS

NEXT MEETING:  July 20, 2017, 12:00 pm – 3:00 pm, Utah State History, Board Room

ADJOURN

TOUR
Utah Drawn Map exhibit (1 hour)

 

 

Utah World War I Commission

Veterans of WWI, male and female, stand in front of an airplane, Ogden, Utah, 1919.

World War I veterans in Ogden, 1919. USHS

April 2017 marks the centennial of America’s entry into World War I, a defining conflict of the modern era.

To commemorate the sacrifice and involvement of Utahns in the Great War, the Utah WWI Commission will provide information and resources to the public.

News

The commission is offering small grants to encourage Utahns to recognize the impact of WWI in their communities. Projects could include:

  • Guest lectures
  • Community memorial programs
  • WWI monument cleaning, tracking, or repair
  • Community WWI history

Contact uhq@utah.gov for more information.

Events

Event listings will be updated regularly. If you know of a WWI-related event in Utah, email us at uhq@utah.gov.

Veterans of World War I in a parade in Ogden, Utah, 1919.

Veterans of World War I, Ogden, 1919. USHS

 

August 12
Military Appreciation Day for all state parks

November 10
Utah State University: Musical program by Craig Jessop
University of Utah: Veteran’s Day program

Resources

During World War I, telegraphy was taught at the University of Utah to soldiers from Fort Douglas.

During World War I, telegraphy was taught at the University of Utah to soldiers from Fort Douglas. USHS

Educational resources: Curriculum and more, searchable by grade level, subject, and type

Utah and World War I: special issue of Utah Historical Quarterly

Utah and the Great War: The Beehive State and the World War I Experience, ed. by Allan Kent Powell: a collection of essays exploring the complexity of WWI and its impact on Utahns

Splinters of a Nation: German Prisoners of War in Utah: documentary film about German POWs in Utah and the Salina massacre

State Legislature’s Resolution (PDF)

Governor’s Declaration, April 2017 (PDF)

Utah in the World War, by Noble Warrum: published under the auspices of the Utah Council of Defense in 1924

The Great War, from American Experience

National WWI Museum and Memorial

At our April 6th commemorative event, Dr. Robert Means read two poems about the WWI experience. Follow these links for the text of these poems:

Utah Archaeology Site Form Data Submissions

A spreadsheet containing basic archaeological site information defined by the UTSHPO, will be required for any site form submission using the new Utah Archaeology Site Form (UASF). This requirement includes both new recordings and update/addendum recordings. This spreadsheet contains 21 data points across 37 fields as agreed-upon by the Interagency Task Force in February 2017. These data will be used to populate UTSHPO archaeological site databases.

The UTSHPO template must be strictly followed, including field/column name and field ‘lookup’ values. The lookup values are held within the spreadsheet and are pulled directly from the UASF manual. Deviations from the previously defined and approved values will result in data transfer errors. As such, deviations from field names or lookup values may result in projects being submitted for UTSHPO review being returned or rejected for corrections.

If you find values in the UTSHPO tabular template that you feel are in error please contact the Archaeology Records staff. Any desired changes to the UASF or approved lookup values are handled through the Interagency Task Force Group. If you are interested in a change please contact an agency representative for review.

The Utah Archaeology Site Form template can be found here.

A spreadsheet containing explanations of each field, its data type, acceptable values, and USAF section can be found here.

Utah Archaeology Site Form Release

In February 2017, the Interagency Task Force, which includes leaders from state and federal agencies and UTSHPO, met and approved the official launch of the new archaeological site form for use in Utah. The Utah Archaeological Site Form (UASF) is the result of several years of collaborative work between agencies, academic institutions, and private consultants.  The new form can now be used to provide adequate documentation for archaeological resources in Utah, except for United States Forest Service managed lands.

Digital copies of the new form can be found here:

The associated manual can be found here.

Immediate adoption of the new site form is encouraged as continued use of IMACS will not be allowed after November 1st, 2017. Following this grace period UTSHPO will no longer accept IMACS forms. Existing contracted projects may be allowed to submit IMACS forms after the drop-dead date on a case-by-case basis with UTSHPO.

In addition to the new form, UTSHPO is requiring submission of a  spreadsheet populated with core site data in a standardized format. More information about this spreadsheet can be found here. Any site form generator used will need to populate a properly formatted spreadsheet or the user will manually enter the information into a template spreadsheet provided by the UTSHPO. Further digital standards are pending the release of a new electronic SHPO consultation system that will eliminate paper submission. More information will be forthcoming.

Archaeology Site Etiquette

If you’ve hiked, biked, rafted, or traveled anywhere in Utah, chances are you’ve found ancient ruins and artifacts, also called “archaeological sites”. An archaeological site is anything left by past humans. Sites can be rock art, pueblos, arrowheads, mines, cabins, trails, and much more! Utah has over 90,000 known archaeological sites sharing the past 13,000 years of human history. Unfortunately, many sites are being vandalized. Ancestors of Native Americans lived in these places that continue to have cultural significance today, so it’s important that we all take care of such sites. These three keys will help you enjoy and protect archaeological sites:

Stay safe around archaeology

  • Archaeological sites can be dangerous. Sites such as old mines may have open shafts, that may pose danger to falling and critters love to nest in rocks. Keep alert and stay out of dangerous situations.
  • Explore buildings and structures; however, if it looks unsafe, assume that is the case. Don’t climb on the fragile walls or try to put rocks back in place. Only professionals should try to rebuild walls, but let someone know if you see a problem. Look out for nails and other sharp objects.

Protect and preserve the past

  • Staying on trail protects buried artifacts, and camping in designated spots helps keep archaeological sites tidy.
  • If you find something that might be an artifact, you can measure, draw, and take a picture of the artifact,if it’s safe. Just remember to put it back where you found it! When you take an artifact away from where you found it, archaeologists lose the chance to learn more about past people.
  • Take pictures or drawings of rock art and historic inscriptions! If you want to make rock art “pop” in your photographs, try using different filters. Art is too fragile to touch, and never use chalk or water on rock art and inscriptions.
  • If you find graffiti it’s time to call the professionals! You don’t need to try to fix it (that could be more damaging), just take pictures if you can and report it.
  • If you see someone else damaging a site, don’t talk to them yourselves but make sure to tell a ranger, archaeologist, or another agency person.
  • If you find an archaeological artifact or site that isn’t well-marked, make sure to tell the person who owns or manages the land. You can email us at the Utah Antiquities Section and we can help connect you with the landowner.

Archaeological Site Etiquette


Do’s and Don’ts In Pictures

 

 


How to learn more or get involved:

-State History maintains a list of archaeological sites that are open to visitation by the public: https://heritage.utah.gov/history/history-maps

– Friends of Cedar Mesa (https://www.friendsofcedarmesa.org/)

– Tread Lightly! Respect & Protect (https://www.treadlightly.org/programs/respect-and-protect/)

– Utah Statewide Archaeological Society (USAS) (http://utaharchaeology.org/)

– Utah Rock Art Research Association (URARA) (https://urara.wildapricot.org/)

– Passport in Time (PIT) (http://www.passportintime.com)

Latinos in Utah

WE REMEMBER, WE CELEBRATE, WE BELIEVE                                         A PHOTO HISTORY OF LATINOS IN UTAH

Latinos in Utah
History of Mexico
Monticello Settlement
Miners of Utah
Railroad Workers in Utah
Religious Practices of Latinos in Utah
Migrant Workers in Utah
Utah Hispanics in the Military
Latinos’ Quest for Civil Rights in Utah
Our Future: Our Children

For twenty years, and in conjunction with our oral history project, we gathered an impressive number of pictures and documents of Latinos in the state of Utah. These pictures allowed us to recreate the history of Latinos since the time when the Aztecs and Utes inhabited Utah’s territory to our present days. Based on ethnic methodologies, I merged the history of the United States, the history of Utah, and the history of Mexican Americans in the Southwest.

Our main intention was to increase the level of awareness of the presence of Latinos in Utah, to promote tolerance and understanding in our communities, and to make this information accessible to people without formal education. For these purposes, we created a travel exhibit, with captions in English and Spanish, and with a feedback mechanism through which people provided further information. The exhibit was displayed throughout the state and about 120,000 people visited our photo-documentary.

This collection includes maps showing the territory of Utah when it was part of Mexico, the first community of Latinos in Monticello, the experience of the miners in Bingham and Price, the participation of Latinos in the construction of Utah’s railroad, the presence of Mexican migrant workers, the Latinos of Utah who enrolled in the U.S. wars abroad, the early religious organizations of Catholics and Latter Day Saints, the Chicano Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s and 1970s, and Utah’s Latino leaders who have left a legacy for future generations.

Organizations such as the Utah State Historical Society, the Center of Documentary Art, the American West Center, the Salt Lake Tribune, the Special Collections at the University of Utah, Utah Humanities, Ethnic Studies, Centro Civico Mexicano, Weber State University, the Office of Hispanic Affairs, and multiple families contributed to this project. We are confident that our involvement will enhance the goals of making Utah’s history a more wholistic and inclusive endeavor.

Armando Solorzano. Ph.D.

 

 

This was an excerpt of the panels. You can access the finding aide here.