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The Seventh Census of the United States: Utah and Slavery

The Seventh Census of the United States was scheduled to be counted in 1850. In the provisional state of Deseret, Brigham Young was named the census agent, but before the census could be taken Congress created Utah Territory. Congress appointed Young as the territorial census agent. In addition to the delay that caused, census officials did not receive materials and instructions due to slow mail service.

Finally, April 1, 1851, became the reference date for the Seventh Census in Utah Territory. Assistant agents E. D. Rich, Reuben McBride, Brigham H. Young, and Thomas Bullock began the count using lined papers to record the data because they still hadn’t received official blanks. In July 1851, after the enumeration was completed, Thomas Bullock and Robert Campbell began to recopy the entire census.

On October 31, 1851, a copy was sent to the United States Census Superintendent. This copy—the “official” copy—did not list all the slave inhabitants of Utah on a Schedule 2 for each county. The copy Campbell made of the original enumeration did not show any slaves living in Utah. Known black slaves are listed along with the free white population, giving a false impression that no one was held in bondage in the territory. The only exception is the Schedule 2 for Utah County which shows slaves who were on the way to San Bernardino, California, with their masters. John Bernhisel had advised LDS leaders, who were interested in seeing Utah Territory become a state, to hide the slave population. The official copy of the 1850/1851 census does just that.

The published, official version the 1850 census for Utah that is housed in the National Archives and reproduced on websites is not the “original” version that shows more of the real slave population for the territory. The original version is housed with LDS church records in the Church History Library in Salt Lake as MS 2672.

The different versions of the census have made it very difficult to count and identify slaves held in early Utah. If historians only look at the readily available official census, it gives a skewed picture of who was really in the territory and what their legal status was. Looking at the original version is necessary to get a more accurate count.


IMAGE I-“Official” Schedule 2-Slave Inhabitants in Utah County, Deseret

This image shows the slave schedule submitted to the federal government. It is the published version that shows up on websites which names slaveholders and their slaves who were planning to leave Utah and settle San Bernardino. A few of those listed in that schedule, like Hark Lay and Vilate Crosby, are listed in the Slave Schedule and also among the listings of “Free Inhabitants of Great Salt Lake County” (Schedule 1). The comment “Going to California” written in the remarks column seems to be there to assure federal officials that slaves then in Utah Territory would be leaving.


IMAGE II-Original Schedule 2-Slave Inhabitants-Utah, Salt Lake, and Davis Counties, Utah Territory

This image is the earlier original slave schedule for three counties. It is part of the version of the 1850/51 census that remained in LDS archives. It names some of the black slaves who were not going to California but would continue to live with their masters in Utah. It is, by no means, a complete list of Utah’s slaves, but it does include the African-American Redds. Since there is nothing listed in the column that asked for manumission information for Venus, Chaney, Luke, Marinda, or Amy, it is evidence they were still considered to be the property of the Redd family in 1851. Sam’s status is qualified by the comment that he will be free when he is twenty-one.

Even though Schedule 2 was intended to be an enumeration of slave inhabitants, someone lined out the word “slave” in the title and “colored” has been written in—again, apparently an attempt to disguise the real status of those listed on this schedule.


IMAGE III-“Official” Schedule 1-Free Inhabitants in Utah County, Utah Territory

This page lists the John Hardison Redd family in the “official” census. This is the version found in published census records. The black women and mixed race younger servants appear to be free blacks living in the same household with the white Redds. Their race is notated, but they are listed on the same schedule and in the same way that the Isaac and Jane Manning James family is listed—a free black family.

In the “official” version of the 1850/51 census, some other known slaves are listed on Schedule 1 in the same way as the Redd slaves, with a racial notation indicating they are black. Others who were living in Great Salt Lake and Davis counties are listed in Schedule 1 with no mention of their race. It gives the appearance that they were free white Utahns.

Other than the Redd slaves and Green Flake, none of the slaves listed in the original Schedule 2, reproduced here, are listed anywhere in the official version of the census.

 

2017 Utah State History Conference

Local Matters:
Interweaving historical threads of community

October 10–11, 2017

In 2017, we’re focusing on Local Matters—and local can be broadly defined.

Our annual conference will examine the many strands that create the fabric of communities, such as festivals, buildings, schools, or the arts.

We’ll also discuss the uses of local history and the application of sophisticated methodology to personal, family, and community history.

Workshops will focus on strategies for local organizations, oral history, historic preservation, and community histories.


CONFERENCE SCHEDULE OVERVIEW

Tuesday, October 10th
8:30 am–5:00 pm
Workshops
Rio Grande Depot, 300 S. Rio Grande Street, Salt Lake City
State Archives Building, 346 South Rio Grande Street, Salt Lake City

Wednesday, October 11th
7:45 am – check in and morning refreshment
9:00 am – 5:00 pm
Plenary, lunchtime keynote and awards presentation, history and panel sessions
Utah Cultural Celebration Center, 1355 West 3100 South, West Valley

 



DETAILED CONFERENCE SCHEDULE

Tuesday, October 10th
9:00 am–5:00 pm
Workshops
Rio Grande Depot, 300 S. Rio Grande Street, Salt Lake City
State Archives Building, 346 South Rio Grande Street, Salt Lake City

Introduction to Oral History (WORKSHOP IS FULL)
Megan van Frank and Jedediah Rogers
9 am–noon, Tuesday, October 10, 2017
Zephyr Room, Rio Grande Depot
300 S. Rio Grande, Salt Lake City

Oral history is a powerful tool for people to understand their family stories and community history. Whether used for scholarly research, finding community stories, or fleshing out one’s family history, oral history provides unusual access to stories not otherwise known or in danger of being lost. This workshop will provide a focused introduction to the art and craft of oral history: to the philosophical underpinnings of the discipline—what it can, and cannot, tell us about the past—and to the nuts and bolts of executing successful oral history projects. An orientation to the Utah Humanities and Utah Division of State History joint oral history program will also be provided.

Megan van Frank directs community history and museums programming for Utah Humanities.

Jedediah Rogers is a Senior State Historian at the Utah Division of State History and co-managing editor of the Utah Historical Quarterly.

**

Community Preservation (WORKSHOP IS FULL)
Presented by SHPO staff at Division of State History
8:30 am–noon, Tuesday, October 10, 2017
Archives Training Room, State Archives Building
346 S. Rio Grande, Salt Lake City

This workshop will provide the tools and techniques for running successful local historic preservation programs, including incentives, guidelines and regulations, planning tools, partnerships, public education, and grants and tax credits. Find out whether your community is taking advantage of all resources available to it.

**

Family History Meets History (WORKSHOP IS FULL)
Holly George and Beth Taylor, CGsm
1:00 – 3:30 pm, Tuesday, October 10, 2017
Board Room, Rio Grande Depot
300 S. Rio Grande, Salt Lake City

The world of family history has much to offer—both tools and stories—to the writers of history. At the same time, historical writing and genealogical work are not always the same thing.

This workshop will address
1) How to use the tools of family history research in historical writing
2) How to craft family stories into articles for journals such as Utah Historical Quarterly

Holly George, Utah Historical Quarterly.

Beth Taylor, FamilySearch International

**

National Historic Trails and the BLM: How Historic Trails Can Connect the Public to the Past (WORKSHOP IS FULL)
Rob Sweeten
1:00–2:30 pm, Tuesday, October 10, 2017
Archives Training Room, State Archives Building
346 S. Rio Grande, Salt Lake City

Rob Sweeten is BLM National Trail Administrator for the Old Spanish National Historic Trail and Historic Trails lead for BLM-Utah.

**

BLM-Utah’s Cultural Resource Program: Organization, Goals, and Highlights (WORKSHOP IS FULL)
Nate Thomas
3:00–4:00 pm, Tuesday, October 10, 2017
Archives Training Room, State Archives Building
346 S. Rio Grande, Salt Lake City

Nate Thomas is State Archaeologist and Cultural Resource Program Lead for BLM-Utah



Wednesday, October 11th

8:00 am check in and morning refreshments
9:00 am – 5:00 pm
Plenary, lunchtime keynote and awards presentation, history and panel sessions
Utah Cultural Celebration Center, 1355 West 3100 South, West Valley

Schedule at a Glance

Room 201 & 202 Room 204 Room 205 Great Hall – West Great Hall – East
9:00-10:15am
Great Hall 1
Plenary Session — Peril, Conflict, and Storytelling in Community History
Speakers: David Rich Lewis (moderator), Elizabeth Clement, Gregory Smoak, and Benjamin Pykles
10:30-11:45am Familiar Places: Glimpses of Home and Community National Institutions, Local Crises Territorial History and Its Records Cooperation and the Preservation of Historic Places Writing Regional History: Gary Topping’s Utah Historians and the Reconstruction of Western History
Noon-1:30pm
Great Hall 1
Lunch (free for registered attendees)

Keynote
Ken Verdoia
I’m not a Historian, But I Played One On TV

2017 Outstanding Achievement Awards Program
Dina Blaes, Chair, Board of State History

1:45-3:00pm Food and Culture: Daily Life in Northern Utah

 

Pedagogy in the Digital Era Historic Preservation in Salt Lake City Knowledge is Power: Education in Utah History of the Southern Paiute Tribe Restoration Act
3:15-4:30pm Cache Valley Utah Drug Court Oral History Project: A Community-Driven Effort Religion and the Community The Impact of Independent Film on Local Communities Interpreting Controversy: Preserving and Presenting the Story of Joe Hill Understanding 20th-Century Utah: James Allen’s Still the Right Place: Utah’s Second Half-Century of Statehood, 1945-1995

 


Click here for detailed session and speaker information

 

Thank you to our generous conference sponsors!

    
    
    

Tschanz Rare Books, LLC

Utah Historical Quarterly Winter 2017


Volume 85, Number 1 (Winter 2017 Issue):


Published since 1928, the Utah Historical Quarterly is the state’s premier history journal and the source for reliable, engaging Utah history. Join the Historical Society for your own copy.

Each issue of the Utah Historical Quarterly is accompanied with rich web supplements that introduce readers to sources, photos, interviews, and other engaging material. These “extras” are located at history.utah.gov/uhqextras.

WEB EXTRAS: See here 


IN THIS ISSUE


The Utah Historical Quarterly first devoted an issue entirely to architectural history in 1975, with “Toward an Architectural Tradition”; just over a decade later came a second such issue, investigating “Architecture at the Turn of the Century.” The time has come to add to this body of work. In this issue of UHQ, we focus on historic preservation and on place-based history of the built environment.

Historic preservation has a variety of meanings, depending on one’s perspective and experience. In the broadest of definitions, it encompasses the movement to document and save that which is meaningful to our collective history. While to some this phrase may convey the stoppage of time, to others it represents change. Places are not frozen; they are always evolving. The historic preservation process gives us a chance to collectively determine if and how historic places work within the context of a changing built environment. You can’t see historic preservation in a museum. While history is physically present around us every day, it’s part of a temporary museum undergoing permanent change.

Preservation embraces a cross-section of community-based practices and institutions that include historic architecture and archaeology, as well as museums, libraries, and archives, festivals, tourism, and long-lived businesses. Though representing even a thread of all these areas in a special issue would be a challenge, the essays in this issue demonstrate the breadth of knowledge of Utah’s architectural historians and archaeologists, highlighting some of the tremendous
research and writing in the field. The authors’ expertise and the UHQ’s support of this type
of research help generate more public understanding or places that matter. This issue demonstrates the important role of historic preservation in Utah in determining how our state changes for the better when we consider places of meaning—what I refer to in my opening essay as sites of conscience.

Bim Oliver served as a consultant in the documentation of the midcentury development of the University of Utah campus. The years after World War II saw extensive growth in student population, though it took the state twenty-five years to catch up to the demand for greater access and new academic programs. The buildings constructed during those years of development and change are now frequently discussed—and targeted—for demolition. One goal of Oliver’s documentation was to foster greater public appreciation for why these places were built in the first place and how they were used. Although they look different than the older structures forming Presidents Circle, Oliver argues, midcentury, Modernist buildings still deserve preservation.

Given the amount of federally owned public lands in Utah, partnerships between the managing federal agencies, interested stakeholders, lessees of federal property, and the public at large are essential in administering the cultural resources on those lands. Richa Wilson, a Forest Service architectural historian, offers an overview of the evolution of Forest Service architecture in Utah dating to the early twentieth century. She shows how buildings constructed in the state’s forests both reflected and departed from mainstream trends. The changing nature of federal
forest management and policies gave each period distinctive design characteristics that continue to be identifiable today.

In his essay, Thomas Carter, an emeritus professor at the University of Utah, argues that historic
preservationists derive cultural meaning through analysis and drawing. Through this series of artistic drawings, Carter highlights a wide range of building types and forms, architectural styles, and influences in construction. His essay also demonstrates the importance of drawing to historic preservation and how that skill is fading with each generation.

Finally, Sheri Murray Ellis, a cultural resource consultant, details the growth and decline of the Ogden Union Stockyard. This large and profitable facility came to exist largely through the instruments of technology—especially the railroad—and, in the end, newer technologies made the yards obsolete. Today, they are the site of redevelopment efforts.

I want to acknowledge my tremendous appreciation to the authors in this issue and to the UHQ editors for their willingness to produce the issue and persistent, professional guidance to oversee its completion.

Kirk Huffaker, Guest Editor
Preservation Utah

 


ARTICLES

Becoming More Conscientious of Utah’s Sites of Conscience
By Kirk Huffaker

Modernism on Campus: Architecture at the University of Utah, 1945–1975
By Bim Oliver

Building the Forest Service in Utah: An Architectural Context
By Richa Wilson

Studying the Unstudied: Utah Drawings from the Western Regional Architecture Program Collection, Marriott Library, University of Utah, 1982–2016
By Thomas Carter

The Last Word in Stockyard Construction: The Rise and Fall of the Ogden Union Stockyard
By Sheri Murray Ellis


BOOK REVIEWS

Leisl Carr Childers, The Size of the Risk: Histories of Multiple Use in the Great Basin. Reviewed by Joseph E. Taylor III

Matthew L. Harris and Newell G. Bringhurst, eds., The Mormon Church and Blacks: A Documentary History. Reviewed by Russell Stevenson

Larry Gerlach, Alma Richards, Olympian. Reviewed by Chris Elzey


BOOK NOTICES

Jonathan Foster, Lake Mead National Recreation Area: A History of America’s First National Playground

Photographs by Peter Goin, Essays by Peter Friederici, A New Form of Beauty: Glen Canyon beyond Climate Change

Detailed History Sessions “Local Matters”

10/11/2017 Utah Cultural Celebration Center
Time Session Titles and Speakers
10:30 – 11:45am Familiar Places: Glimpses of Home and Community

Alan B. Barnett
There’s No Place Like Home: Named Houses in Utah

Bruce W. Worthen
Voices from a Distant Town: Community Formation in the Remote Settlements of Antebellum Utah

Clint Pumphrey
Daggett County at 100: New Approaches to a Colorful Past

National Institutions, Local Crises

J. Scott Bushman
A History of Fighting Forest Fires in Northern Utah:  Local Initiatives that Contributed to National Solutions

Joseph F. Darowski
Struggling with the Three Rs: Relief, Recovery, and Reform in Utah during the Great Depression (1930–1940)

Ben Kiser
When the Army Came to Town:  WWII, the Cold War, and the Aftermath in Tooele County

  Territorial History and Its Records

Kenneth Alford
Utah and the American Civil War: The Written Record

Richard Quartaroli
John Wesley Powell’s Explorations and Surveying of the Colorado River and Its Tributaries, 1871–1872, with the Assistance of Mormon Communities

  Cooperation and the Preservation of Historic Places

Adriane Herrick Juarez
Honoring the Past, Moving into the Future: The Renovation of the Historic Park City Library

Lisa Michele Church
The Page Ranch Story: Preserving a Local Treasure

Leighton M. Quarles
The Fort Douglas Heritage Commons: A Model of Public-Private Cooperation in Historic Preservation

Writing Regional History: Gary Topping’s Utah Historians and the Reconstruction of Western History

Gary Topping, Polly Aird, Richard Saunders, Gary Bergera, Jedediah Rogers (moderator)

Noon – 1:30pm Lunch

2017 Outstanding Achievement Awards Program
Dina Blaes, Chair Board of State History

Keynote
Ken Verdoia
I’m Not A Historian, But I Played One on TV

1:45 – 3:00pm Food and Culture: Daily Life in Northern Utah

Darcy Pumphrey
Brigham Young College: A Case Study in LDS Education at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

Cody Patton
Beehive Brews: The Surprising Story of Beer in Utah

Lisa Barr
Local Food Producers of Cache Valley, Utah

Pedagogy in the Digital Era

Hadyn B. Call
The Driven 2 Teach Program: A History

Brenden Rensink, Brent Rogers, Jay H. Buckley                                                   Making Local History Digital: Intermountain Histories

Historic Preservation in Salt Lake City

William G. Hartley
One Salt Lake Landmark Saved, One Left to Disintegrate:  Nicholas G. Morgan and Architect Edward O. Anderson’s Crusade to Save the Old City Hall and Turn Pioneer Park into a Jewel

Walter Jones
Salt Lake City’s Magnificent Knutsford Hotel

Nan Weber and Allen Roberts
The Salt Lake City Building Legacy of Master Architect Richard K. A. Kletting

  Knowledge is Power: Education in Utah

Mervin Brewer
Echoes from the Chalkboard: Public School Buildings of the Past

Mark W. Buchanan
“School in the Other Fellows Town Seven Miles Distant”: Cache County School Consolidation, 1908

Brett D. Dowdle
“Putting Our Clutches to His Very Throat”: The Reconstruction of Education in Utah, 1867–1890

History of the Southern Paiute Tribe Restoration Act

Larry Echohawk, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; Travis Parashonts, Paiute Tribe; Dorena Martineau, Paiute Tribe; Mary Sloan (moderator), attorney

 

3:15 – 4:30pm Cache Valley Utah Drug Court Oral History Project: A Community-Driven Effort

Randy Williams (moderator), Jennifer Duncan, Thomas L. Willmore, Brock Alder

Religion and the Community

Alan J. Clark
“I’m Going Through”: Bringing Pentecostal Christianity to Utah

Jeffery O. Johnson
“Shaking the Tree”: The Impact of Signature Books on the Mormon Community

Jessica Nelson
Mormonism and the Negro, African Americans, and LDS Racism at Utah State University, 1960–1961

The Impact of Independent Film on Local Communities
Doug Fabrizio or Elaine Clarke (moderator), KUER, RadioWest
Patrick Hubley, Program Director, Utah Film Center
Virgina Pearce, Director, Utah Film Commission
Local Film Makers: Tyler Measom, Film: Sons of Perdition, Jenny MacKenzie and Jorden Saxton Hackney, Jennie MacKenzie Films, Film: Dying I Vei

Interpreting Controversy: Preserving and Presenting the Story of Joe Hill

Jeremy Harmon; Jim Kichas; Quinn Rollins

Understanding 20th-Century Utah: James Allen’s Still the Right Place: Utah’s Second Half-Century of Statehood, 1945-1995

James Allen; Thomas Alexander; Brian Cannon; Michael Homer; Eric Swedin; Brad Westwood (moderator)

Cooperation and the Preservation of Historic PlacesAdriane Herrick Juarez
Honoring the Past, Moving into the Future: The Renovation of the Historic Park City LibraryLisa Michele Church
The Page Ranch Story: Preserving a Local TreasureLeighton M. Quarles
The Fort Douglas Heritage Commons: A Model of Public-Private Cooperation in Historic Preservation

Board of State History

Meeting Agenda
Thursday, July 20, 2017, 12:00 – 3:00 pm
Rio Grande Depot, 300 S. Rio Grande Street, Board Room


TIME:  Noon 
– working lunch for Board members, hosted by State History

12:15 p.m. – WELCOME – Dina Blaes, Chair

STATE HISTORY INTERNS INTRODUCTIONS (5 min)

APRIL – JUNE STATE HISTORY PROGRAM ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Brad Westwood – Administration (5 min)
1. With Vet Affairs, worked with the Legislature to offer funding for the 100th anniversary of WWI and its impact on Utah.  WWI grants program launched the first of July.
2.  Executing the annual evaluation of program managers’ performance for the last year, and assisting them in planning and goal setting for 2017-18

Chris Merritt  – Antiquities (5 min)
1. Archaeology & Preservation Month.  *62 events, 20 counties. Estimated 4,000 attendees.
2. Next Generation Workflows:  e106-Beta Stage (Fall Launch), PresPro-Contract Signed (Fall Launch), Database Rebuild 300,000+ Records (Fall Launch)
3. Documentation Efforts:  Smith Family Rock Art Preserve, Utah County, Lime Kilns, University of Utah

Roger Roper – Historic Preservation (5 min)
1. Co-hosted the national Vernacular Architecture Forum (VAF) conference, May 31 – June 3.
2. Helped celebrate Archaeology and Historic Preservation Month in May.
3. Dedication of the 1899 Spring City School as the new town hall and community center.

Wendy Rex-Atzet – History Day (5 min)
1. National History Day Competition, June 11-15.  57 students, 10 teachers.  2 Projects National Top Ten & the George Washington Leadership Award.  Highlights: Ken Burns, Joan Trumpauer Mullholland, Ballet Russe @ Smithsonian, Rob Bishop, Mike Lee
2. Utah History Day Census
3.  Friend Utah History Day on Facebook

Doug Misner – Library and Collections (5 min)
1. Digitization – Published the Ray King Collection and the Frederick and Nellie Hill Collection and added 682 images to our Digital Collections page.
2.  Collection Access – New collections catalog went live at the end of May. 64,000 items are now searchable by the public in a very easy to use system.  Held kick off meeting with our collection management system vendor. Met with CRSA to discuss and review plans for the research center redesign.
3. Collection Storage – working on a basement and offsite storage plan.

Jed Rogers, Holly George – Utah Historical Quarterly (5 min)
1. Public History –  Conference preparation: organizing the program; working with book and article award committees;  WWI commission: grants available for commemorative products and events; and announcing our first Miriam Murphy UHQ Fellow.
2. Utah Historical Quarterly, Summer 2017 issue –  The University of Utah and the Utes, by Larry Gerlach;   Rape Law in World War II-Era Utah, by Michaele Smith;  Creation of Cedar Breaks National Monument, 1916–1934, by Dale Topham;  Cooperative Boosterism along U.S. Highway 89, by Clint Pumphrey and Jim Kichas;  Nineteenth-Century Mormon Girls and Their Manuscript Newspapers by Jennifer Reeder

Kevin Fayles – Communications (5 min)
1. Website stats and social media
2. Cemetery and burials database
3. USHS and State History Anniversaries

 

 ACTION ITEMS 

  1. Approval of the April 20, 2017 Board of State History Meeting Minutes – Dina Blaes
    (Board motion required) (3 min)
  2. Committee reports
    (Board motion required if any action items are requested)
    A) Major Planning, Gifts & Awards Committee – Mike Homer (5 min)
    B) Library, Collections & Digitization Committee – Steve Olsen (5 min)
            a) Proposed Digitization Policy update (5 min)
    C) Utah State Historical Society Committee – David Rich Lewis (5 min)
    D) Historic Preservation & Archaeology Committee – David Richardson (5 min)
    a) National Register of Historic Places Nominations – Cory Jensen (25 min)
    Summaries of National Register of Historic Places Nominations
    Myton Presbyterian Church. Myton, Duchesne County
    Moon House Complex, San Juan County(federal nomination for review, no approval needed)
    US Post Office, Provo, Utah County(federal nomination for review, no approval needed)
  3. Approval of 2017 Outstanding Achievement Award nominations – Kevin Fayles (15 min)
    (Board motion required)

TRAINING

Open and Public Meetings Act – Thom Roberts (15 min)

DISCUSSION ITEMS

  1. Review of 2017 Utah State Historical Society awards (5 min)
    a) Publication Award nominations – Holly George
    b) William P. MacKinnon Award and Helen Papanikolas Award – Brad Westwood
  2. State History’s 2017-18 mission statement – Brad Westwood (5 min)
  3. State History Annual Conference “Local Matters” – Staff (5 min)
  4. Suggested agenda items and locations for Oct. 26, 2017 Board Retreat – Alycia Rowley (5 min)

OTHER BUSINESS

NEXT MEETING:  October 26, 2017, 9:00 am – 3:00 pm, Location TBD

ADJOURN

 

Modernism at the University of Utah: Research Notes

Editors’ note: Bim Oliver, author of “Modernism on Campus: Architecture at the University of Utah, 1945-1975,” offers readers excerpts and quotes from his research notes, including information on university building projects that never materialized and humorous quotes from reports and primary source documents.


University Building Projects That Didn’t Materialize

Like many of the buildings in the post-World War II era, Merrill Engineering was constructed in phases.

The building that exists constitutes the first three phases of the project, completed in relatively short order starting in the late 1950s. But the original concept for the engineering center also envisioned both a circular auditorium and a six-story classroom building. The former was dropped early on, but the classroom building remained an integral part of the center’s design as “Phase IV.” It was never constructed, however, due to lack of funding.

This initial concept for the Merrill Engineering Center included a circular auditorium and six-story classroom building. Courtesy of University of Utah Marriott Library Special Collections.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As the Olpin Union was nearing completion, the Campus Planning Committee contemplated the construction of a “campanile” (bell tower) in the open space just south of the new building. “The campus badly needs some symbol indicative of education that will complete the triangle within the city,” the committee observed in 1958, “i.e., the capitol dome represents State government, the temple, religion and perhaps a campanile to represent education, and which can be plainly seen just as the other two elements are.” Although the campanile was never built, the Social and Behavioral Sciences Building eventually served as the landmark envisioned by the committee.

The original plans for the Union building included a “campanile” or bell tower in the area to the south of the building. Courtesy of University of Utah Archives.

 

The bookstore today occupies the same site that it occupied in the years following World War II. Busy as it is today, it was considered of secondary significance by university planners. More to the point, they felt that its location was better suited for “a heavy use faculty, administrative or academic use.” So they considered two primary alternatives: a new building north of the Union and a structure between the Union and Orson Spencer Hall, “designed as an underground facility, with the floor level approximately the same as the level of the major academic mall.” Due to funding limitations, however, neither was constructed.

As noted in the related article, the primary funder of Pioneer Memorial Theater, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, asked the architects to draw up plans for Pioneer Memorial Theater as a structure that replicated the Salt Lake Theater that had been located downtown for several decades. An early drawing shows this replica that was later dispensed with in favor of a more Modernist design that better accommodated the technical requirements of the theater.

An early rendering of Pioneer Memorial Theater as a replica of the Salt Lake Theater. Courtesy of University of Utah Archives.

There were other proposals—some conceptual, some refined—that would have significantly changed the character of campus:

  • Two campus planning maps from 1959 and 1960 showed the library as an octagon and a circle, respectively, rather than the square that exists today. As the design was finalized, administrators suggested etching inspirational quotations into the cast-stone panels that enclosed the library, an idea rejected by the architects.
  • Early site plans and renderings of the plaza to the east of the Social and Behavioral Sciences Building envisioned an elaborate fountain.
  • An architect’s rendering of the Eccles Health Sciences Library included an expansive plaza between the library to the east, the Medical Center to the north, and the College of Pharmacy to the south.
  • Options for the medical towers and townhouses south of the Medical Center included the use of Sunset Tower (recently completed at 40 South 900 East), as well as a much larger complex on the current site that would have incorporated a varying configuration of high rises and lower “garden type” apartments.
  • In the late 1960s, as the university sought to increase its supply of married student housing, planners considered developing over 200 units at the mouth of Red Butte Canyon.
  • A primary goal during the post-World War II era was to concentrate academic buildings near the center of campus. One concept considered for achieving this goal was to construct two 14-story structures—one for the Chemistry Department and one for the Physics Department. As one planner noted, however, “Shoehorning two such units into that restricted area would be most difficult, as well as visually unpleasant.”
  • Early renderings and models for the Medical Center, Special Events Center, College of Pharmacy, and Physics Building reflect significantly different design ideas than those that were actually constructed.

    Humorous Quotes

  • “This will be a place where future wives will be trained on how to turn out the hash without burning it.” (W.J. O’Connor, chair of the Board of Regents, at the October 1951 groundbreaking for the Sterling Sill Home Living Center)
  • “At an earlier date, I received a memo from you posing the hazard that the rocks to the east of the Union Building and Orson Spencer Hall could be if we were to have a riot on campus.” (Memo from B. Blain Bradford to Bruce H. Jensen in July of 1970)
  • “Most people would agree that the fountain (Tanner Fountain across the plaza from the library) seems to be attracting the ‘undesirable’ hippie type clientele who are oftentimes quite dirty and unkempt.” (Memo from J Elroy Jones in July of 1970)

    Tanner Fountain. Courtesy of University of Utah Archives.

  • “Dean Hiner (College of Pharmacy) said his faculty could get along with anybody; however, if it (the site for the new College of Pharmacy building) went to the Medical Center he wanted it understood that his profession was a dignified profession and was not to be browbeaten by the Medics.” (Memo from Martin Brixen in March of 1958)
  • “Since the development of married student housing will cut out about four holes on the golf course, it was decided that detailed plans should be drawn up as quickly as possible in order that it could be explained to the Fort Douglas Club people.” (Minutes of the Planning Committee in August of 1956)
  • Avard Fairbanks first dean of the College of Fine Arts (reacting to the emergence of Modernist ideas on campus): “The corruption of art students’ principles stems from being exposed to foreign art manglers, the subversive doctrine of [-]isms, Communist-inspired and Communist-connected. These influences have one boasted goal: the destruction of our cultural tradition and priceless heritage.” (quoted in Anne Palmer Peterson.Years of Promise: The University of Utah’s A. Ray Olpin Era, 1946-1964. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press, 2009.)
  • Orson Spencer Hole (Utah Daily Chronicle, April 17, 1956) Image 2
  • From the Utah Daily Chronicle, April 17, 1956. Courtesy of Utah Digital Newspapers.

Historic Preservation and Sites of Conscience: A Conversation with Kirk Huffaker

Editors’ note: We sat down with Kirk Huffaker, executive director of Preservation Utah and author of Salt Lake City, Then and Now (2008), to discuss the role of historic preservation at places of meaning, what he refers to as sites of conscience. Huffaker is guest editor of the winter 2017 issue of the Utah Historical Quarterly.


Huffaker Interview Part I

Huffaker Interview Part II

 

UHQ Winter 2017 Web Extras

Historic Preservation and Sites of Conscience: A Conversation with Kirk Huffaker

We sat down with Kirk Huffaker, executive director of Preservation Utah and author of Salt Lake City, Then and Now (2008), to discuss the role of historic preservation at places of meaning, what he refers to as sites of conscience. Huffaker is guest editor of the winter 2017 issue of the Utah Historical Quarterly.

 

Modernism at the University of Utah: Research Notes

Bim Oliver, author of “Modernism on Campus: Architecture at the University of Utah, 1945-1975,” offers readers excerpts and quotes from his research notes regarding modernism at the university.

 

Forest Service Architectural Plans and Manuals, 1935-1940

These Forest Service architectural plans and manuals, published between 1935 and 1940, depict the styles and layouts then common to Forest Service structures.

 

 

Archaeology Publications

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