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Utah Historical Quarterly Current Issue


Volume 84, Number 4 (Fall 2016 Issue):


Published since 1928, the Utah Historical Quarterly is the state’s premier history journal and the source for reliable, engaging Utah history. Join the Historical Society for your own copy.

Each issue of the Utah Historical Quarterly is accompanied with rich web supplements that introduce readers to sources, photos, interviews, and other engaging material. These “extras” are located at history.utah.gov/uhqextras.

WEB EXTRAS: See here 


IN THIS ISSUE


It’s often noted that the work of a historian—patching together fragments of information to arrive at an understanding of the past, however limited—is like the work of a detective. Just so, as historians assemble their puzzles of documents, objects, and memories, they ask questions about motivations, about cause and effect, and even about what simply happened. The articles in this issue of Utah Historical Quarterly—as they reconsider accepted explanations and ponder how big events can affect personal lives—are full of such inquiries.

Our lead essay draws on Jedediah Smith’s record discovered in 1967 and published in 1977—more than two decades after Dale L. Morgan’s classic Jedediah Smith and the Opening of the West—to detail the famed 1826 and 1827 southwest expeditions. Smith’s travels helped to map terra incognita, as other historians have shown, and perhaps explain a puzzling mystery: what happened to the Paiute village first encountered by Smith in 1826 but abandoned upon his return the following year? Edward Leo Lyman’s close reading of the record suggests that Jed Smith’s narrative is intertwined with those of two of his contemporaries, James Ohio Pattie and Ewing Young. Though Smith is well known by scholars and general readers of the American West, this piece offers a welcome reevaluation of his travels and provides surprising revelations.

In April 1857, Felix Marion Jones traveled with his family as a toddler, from Arkansas to Utah Territory, where his family became victims of the superlative tragedy at Mountain Meadows. Jones survived the massacre but endured loss beyond description: first his parents, then the woman who cared for him after their death, and even his identity. After the federal government returned Jones and his fellow survivors to Arkansas, the boy experienced a difficult childhood. As a teenager, Jones struck out on his own for Texas and eventually had a family of his own. One of his posterity, a favorite grandson named Milam “Mike” Jones, heard F. M.’s memories and, in 2008, passed them on to the historian Will Bagley. This is a story of loss, family, and renewal that spans centuries.

During the hottest years of the Cold War, the U.S. government—especially the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)—conducted above-ground, atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Although representatives of the AEC and others soft-pedaled the dangers of these tests, they had devastating effects upon many people and animals living downwind from the NTS. Our third article explores how employees and institutions of the federal government dealt with the consequences of nuclear fallout.

When designated in 1964, Canyonlands National Park was to be “built” in the tradition of Yellowstone or the Grand Canyon—lodges, restaurants, and roads directing visitors to the park’s inner sanctum. Within fifteen years the Canyonlands General Management Plan called for a preserved landscape devoid of the easy-access roads planned into the Chesler Park, Grabens, and Needles areas. Our fourth essay details the forces at play—the wartime shortfall in funds, the rise of environmental sensibilities, the ideologies of park superintendents—and the sense of loss experienced by some. The history of Canyonlands is a reminder that all landscapes are products of contingent forces and of contending voices. Even the look and experience of a most dramatic and remote landscape is not inevitable or fixed.

 


ARTICLES

Rethinking Jedediah S. Smith’s Southwestern Expeditions
By Edward Leo Lyman

Touching History: A Grandson’s Memories of Felix Marion Jones and the Massacre at Mountain Meadows
By Will Bagley

“Damned Stupid Old Guinea Pigs”: The Cover-Up of the “Dirty” Harry Nuclear Test
By Katherine Good

Closing the Road to Chesler Park: Why Access to Canyonlands National Park Remains Limited
By Clyde L. Denis


BOOK REVIEWS

David B. Danbom, ed., Bridging the Distance: Common Issues of the Rural West. Reviewed by R. Douglas Hurt

Marian Wardle and Sarah E. Boehme, eds., Branding the American West: Paintings and Films, 1900-1950. Reviewed by James R. Swensen

Richard L. Saunders, ed., Dale Morgan on the Mormons: Collected Works Part 2, 1949-1970. Reviewed by Curt Bench

Diana L. Ahmad, Success Depends on the Animals: Emigrants, Livestock, and Wild Animals on the Overland Trails, 1840-1869. Reviewed by Jeff Nichols


BOOK NOTICES

James A. Toronto, Eric R. Dursteler, and Michael W. Homer, Mormons in the Piazza: History of the Latter-day Saints in Italy

Martha Bradley-Evans, Glorious in Persecution: Joseph Smith, American Prophet, 1839-1844

 

NHPA 50 Year Anniversary

Join the nationwide celebration for the 50th Anniversary of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) in 2016. This Act transformed the face of communities throughout the United States and Utah by establishing a framework and incentives to preserve historic buildings, landscapes, and archaeological sites.  Coordinated through Preservation50.org, the nationwide celebration is designed to inform and engage all ages and backgrounds in this significant law’s effects on local communities and history. Since 1966, the NHPA has shaped preservation efforts on America’s history and culture while generating positive social and economic impacts. In 2015, the Utah State Historic Preservation Office (formed in 1973) gathered stakeholders to organize a year of events and to gather engaging stories and media for the celebration.

This website is a portal to a year of events and activities that cover all corners of Utah.

Events Calendar     Media     Preservation Apps     Links     Partners

shipwreckgsl

Shipwreck at the Great Salt Lake

 

Archaeology & Preservation Month 2017

Utah Archaeology and Historic Preservation Month celebrates Utah’s rich archaeological and historical resources with a month of lectures and hands-on learning. Statewide events include:

  • Open house at the Natural History Museum of Utah with educational activities for kids and adults
  • Hands-on experiences
  • Lectures and paper presentations
  • Tours of archaeological and historical sites

Please note: Updates occur regularly, but may take up to 48 hours to appear. Please note: Jumps may land slightly below their marker. We are sorry for the inconvenience.

Do you have an event? Please email cmerritt@utah.gov and fill out the Archaeology and Historic Preservation Event Form

 Where are you interested in attending events (by County)?

CacheCounty

Hyrum

  • Guided Tours of Historic Hyrum
    Date & Time: Saturday, May 13 (11am to 1pm)
    Location: Meet at Hyrum Museum, 50 West Main
    For More Information (contact info): Jami J. Van Huss, museum@hyrumcity.com, 435-245-0208
    Sponsors/Organizations:
    Hyrum Museum
    Admission Cost: Free
    Event Description: Guided tours of historic Hyrum will begin at 11:00 am and 1:00 pm. Meet at the museum fifteen minutes prior to your tour time. Since there is limited seating on the bus, please sign-up ahead of time at the museum. Tours will last 35–45 minutes and will be based off the Historic Tour of Hyrum, Utah booklet, which will be provided to all participants. Additional booklets will be available at the museum for those interested in driving themselves. More tour times may be added if needed.

 

Utah Drawn: An Exhibition of Rare Maps

We are pleased to announce an exhibition of forty rare historical maps depicting the region that became Utah from its earliest imaginings by European cartographers to the modern state’s boundaries.

Original maps shown are from the private collection of Salt Lake City businessman Stephen Boulay, with additional contributions from the Utah State Historical Society, LDS Church History Department, L. Tom Perry Special Collections at Brigham Young University, Special Collections at the J. Willard Marriott Library, and the American West Center at the University of Utah.

The exhibition is curated by Travis Ross and Stephen Boulay. Exhibition designer is Kerry Shaw. See here for other contributors and exhibition partners.

Additional selected maps from various institutions and private collectors will be offered as a “show and tell” event in the center of the State Capitol Rotunda on January 27, noon to 2 p.m.

The exhibition will run through late summer 2017.

For an online interactive map detailing the shifting political and cultural boundaries of Utah, see Contested Boundaries: Creating Utah’s State Lines.


UHQ Digital Exhibition

The six maps reproduced below are part of Utah Drawn: An Exhibition of Rare Maps displayed in the Utah Capitol Building fourth floor beginning January 27, 2017.

Maps serve many purposes. They represent physical geographies, recording landmarks, routes, and boundaries. But they also reflect varying perceptions, imaginations, values, and aspirations. This is certainly true of the maps presented here. Over five centuries, empires and explorers along with printers and publishers worked first to trace the outline of a continent that was new to Europeans and then, eventually, to fill in its vast middle. These maps show the steady increase of geographic knowledge of the Americas, but they also demonstrate the economic and political interests that produced that knowledge and the individuals who benefited from it. They hint at what map makers and their sponsors determined was worth documenting, identifying, and, in some cases, possessing. They often erase, obscure, and distort. Put simply: maps are more than cartographic representations of known or imagined physical features on the landscape. As you examine these maps, try to determine the purposes for which they were made and any mistruths, omissions, and distortions they may contain.


img_9769

Title: America Septentrionalis

Creator: Jan Jansson (1588-1664)

Published in: Nouveau Theatre du Monde ou Nouvel Atlas

Place: Amsterdam

Date: 1641

This striking hand-colored map by the Dutch cartographer Jan Jansson (1588-1664) was the first atlas map to treat North America on its own page, separate from the rest of the western hemisphere. Jansson produced this definitive synthesis of the best cartographic knowledge then available. In the process, he helped to canonize both true and false details about North America’s geography for generations. This was not the first map to depict California as an island, for instance, but its widespread distribution helped to popularize that misconception. The eastern seaboard illustrates the French presence along the St. Lawrence River, the English in New England and Virginia, and the Dutch in what is labeled “Novum Belgium.” Though the lake feeding the Rio Del Norte might look familiar to modern Utahns, the Great Salt Lake did not enter the written record until the Timpanogos Utes related its existence to the Dominguez-Escalanté Expedition of 1776.


 

miera-plano-geografico-de-los-descumbimientos

Title: “Plano Geografico de los Descumbimientos”

Creator: Bernardo de Miera y Pacheco (1713-1785)

Manuscript (Original at Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University)

Date: 1778 (Facsimile, 1970)

Bernardo de Miera y Pacheco (1713-1785) traveled with the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition of 1776-1777 and drew this map as a record of the journey. The party served the Spanish interest in establishing an overland route connecting Mexico to Alta California, which remained an overseas colony of New Spain in spite of its relative geographic proximity well into the next century. In this map, Miera depicted the Rio Colorado with new clarity. This map depicted “Laguna de los Timpanogos” (Utah Lake) for the first time. It also illustrates the “Great River of the West,” a mythical river that tantalized those hoping to find a water passage to Asia for nearly two hundred years. Contrary to later maps, this conflation of Utah’s modern Green River and Sevier River terminated in a lake within the Great Basin. Miera named it Laguna de Miera after himself, but modern Utahns will know it as Sevier Lake.


 

vandermaelen-partie-du-mexique-full

Title: “Partie du Mexique”

Creator: Philippe Vandermaelen (1795-1869)

Published in: Atlas Universel de Géographie Physique, Politique, Statistique Et Minéralogique

Date: 1827

Drawn by the Belgian cartographer Philippe Marie Vandermaelen (1795-1869), this map depicted the region from Lake Timpanogos (Utah Lake) to present day Colorado and Wyoming. It appeared in Vandermaelen’s six-volume Atlas Universel, published in 1827. As the first atlas to depict the entire globe with a large, consistent scale (26 miles to the inch), the individual maps in this atlas could be combined on a globe approximately 7.75 meters in diameter. The Princeton University Library’s has rendered the resulting globe digitally. The fourth volume focused on North America, he illustrated the Trans-Mississippi West in about twenty sheets.


 

UTA_Garrett_00333, Mon Oct 08, 2007, 1:57:07 PM, 8C, 8424x7804, (1998+2895), 150%, bent 6 stops, 1/25 s, R70.7, G66.9, B86.1

UTA_Garrett_00333, Mon Oct 08, 2007, 1:57:07 PM, 8C, 8424x7804, (1998+2895), 150%, bent 6 stops, 1/25 s, R70.7, G66.9, B86.1

Title: “Neueste Karte von Mexico … 1850”

Creator: Carl Christian Franz Radefeld (1788-1874)

Published in: Joseph Meyer (1796-1856), Grosser Hand-Atlas

Place: Hildburghausen

Date: 1850

Even if the U.S. government never recognized the expansive state of Deseret, the prolific mapmakers at Meyer’s publishing company Bibliographisches Institut in Hildburghausen, Germany did, if only briefly. Like Young’s map of Deseret in Mitchell’s Universal Atlas, Meyer’s Grosser Hand-Atlas published a rare map of Deseret as originally proposed. That was not a coincidence. Meyer and his cartographer Radefeld relied on Mitchell’s atlas to produce their 1850-1854 editions of the Hand-Atlas.


img_9762

Title: “Map of the United States of America”

Creator: James H. Young (1792-18??)

Published in: Samuel Augustus Mitchell (1792-1868), A New Universal Atlas

Place: Philadelphia

Date: 1850

Fueled by emerging mass-market interest, atlases experienced a resurgence in popularity in the 1840s and 1850s. Produced for S. Augustus Mitchell’s contribution to that market by his longtime engraver and associate James H. Young, this map captured the territorial expansion of the newly-continental United States in progress. While the eastern United States might look relatively familiar—save the lack of West Virginia as a distinct state—the western territories bear only a vague similarity to the familiar state boundaries that would eventually settle. This map captured an already-reduced Utah Territory that stretched from roughly the Sierra Nevada range to the continental divide.

Note that the map erroneously called that territory by its then-defunct name of Deseret. This particular mid-1850 edition of the atlas had two U.S. maps, with each identifying the new territory by its alternate names. The United States never recognized an entity called “Deseret.” Western political events moved rather quickly at times, so it is understandable that a map prepared in early 1850 and published at the end of the year would not be able to keep up. Nonetheless, the territory which should have been labeled Utah Territory never looked like this. [link to the GIS site]


mitchell-oregon-and-upper-california-full

 

mitchell-oregon-and-upper-california-inset

Title: “California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, New Mexico”

Creator: Samuel Augustus Mitchell (1792-1868)

Published in: A New Universal Atlas

Publisher: Charles Desilver

Place: Philadelphia

Date: 1857

Selling atlases in the mass market was a race as often as it was a contest over accuracy and comprehensiveness. Produced rapidly for Mitchell’s Atlas Universal in 1850 by adding new boundaries to an existing base map from the previous decade, this was one of the first maps to show the new state of California. It had little else going for it. Its intellectual debt to the 1840s meant that Frémont practically authored the Great Basin. The map even identified it as the Fremont Basin to at least the 1855 edition. Over the 1850s, Mitchell updated the map, adding in subsequent editions the cities and counties that had been conspicuously absent in the rushed earlier versions.

 


 

 

 

Utah Drawn: An Exhibition of Rare Maps

Exhibition Design Team and Contributors

Exhibit Curators: Travis Ross (American West Center, University of Utah) and Stephen Boulay

Exhibition and Graphic Designer: Kerry Shaw (Utah Department of Heritage & Arts)

Additional Contributors and Editors: William Martin, Peter Crawley, W. Randall Dixon, William MacKinnon, Stephanie Angelides (Utah Capitol Preservation Board), Jedediah S. Rogers (Utah Historical Quarterly), Holly George (Utah Historical Quarterly), Michael W. Homer, and Brad Westwood (Utah Division of State History)

Education Curators and Contributors: Robert Austin (Utah Office of Education), Quinn Rollins (Granite School District), Jeff Nokes (History Department, Brigham Young University), Cassandra Clarke (American West Center, University of Utah), Shirlee Silversmith and James Toledo (Utah Division of Indian Affairs), and Harold D. Mitchell (Utah Valley University)

Logistical, Marketing & Physical Support: Kevin Fayles, Alycia Aldrich, Lisa Buckmiller, Douglas Misner, Michele Elnicky, Rebekah Abbott, Megan Weiss, and Chase Roberts


Exhibition Partners

utahhumanities uhq stephenboulay statehistory statecapitol marriott lds dha byu americanwestcenter

2017 Utah State History Conference

Local Matters

October 12-13, 2017

In 2017, we’re focusing on Local Matters—and local can be broadly defined.

Our annual conference will examine the many strands that create the fabric of communities, such as festivals, buildings, schools, or the arts.

We’ll also discuss the uses of local history and the application of sophisticated methodology to personal, family, and community history.

Workshops will focus on strategies for local organizations, oral history, historic preservation, and community histories.

CONFERENCE SCHEDULE OVERVIEW

Thursday, October 12th
8:00 am -5:00 pm
Plenary, lunchtime keynote and awards presentation, history and panel sessions
Utah Cultural Celebration Center, 1355 West 3100 South, West Valley

Friday, October 13th
9:00 am – 5:00 pm
Workshops
Rio Grande Depot, 300 S. Rio Grande Street, Salt Lake City

*A detailed schedule will be posted in July

The Utah State Historical Society invites the public, scholars, students, policymakers, and organizations to submit proposals for papers, panels, or multimedia presentations on the theme Local Matters. This is both a call for papers and a call for the participation of community organizations such as museums, preservation groups, and historical societies.

Canyonlands: A Photo Gallery

The vast, otherworldly landscape of Canyonlands National Park offers iconic images of hoodoo spires, sandstone cliffs, and desert vegetation. This gallery features striking images from the Utah State Historical Society collection. Accompanying photos of natural scenery are images of people in what is one of Utah’s most remote places.

 

Chesler Park in Canyonlands, 1963-64

Chesler Park in Canyonlands, 1963-64

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11053-george-e-jones-monticello-jeep-enthusiast-in-gorge-in-devils-kitchen-june-4-1963

George E. Jones, Monticello jeep enthusiast, in Devils Kitchen, Canyonlands, June 4, 1963

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11052-jeep-party-ascending-steep-pitch-through-needles-area-of-projected-canyonlands-1963-64

Jeep party ascending steep pitch through the Needles area, Canyonlands, 1963-64

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2317-petroglyphs-in-newspaper-rock-state-park-east-of-canyonlands

Petroglyphs in Newspaper Rock State Park east of Canyonlands, n.d.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Researching the Life of F. M. Jones: A Conversation with Will Bagley

We spoke with Will Bagley, who tells an unforgettable story in the Fall 2016 issue of Utah Historical Quarterly about Felix Marion Jones, a Mountain Meadows Massacre survivor. Bagley worked with Jones’s grandson, Milam Jones Jr., himself a remarkable man, on this project. It’s a story of loss and family that spans generations.

<<Audio coming>>

UHQ Fall 2016 Web Extras

1_8-remington-paintingJedediah Smith's Southwestern Expeditions: An Interactive Map

Jedediah Smith's 1826 and 1827 southwest expeditions are heralded as some of the most significant of western American history. We offer here an interactive map of Smith's southwestern travels--the route accompanied by Smith's diary excerpts and historical photos of places he and his men traversed.

 

2_12Researching the Life of F. M. Jones: A Conversation with Will Bagley

We spoke with Will Bagley about Francis Marion Jones, the Jones family, and the process of researching the children who survived the Mountain Meadows Massacre. 

 

4-4Canyonlands: A Photo Gallery

The vast, otherworldly landscape of Canyonlands National Park offers iconic images of hoodo spires, sandstone cliffs, and desert vegetation. This gallery features striking images from the Utah State Historical Society collection.

 

 

froiseth_utah_10629_det3Utah Drawn: An Exhibition of Rare Maps

We are pleased to announce an upcoming exhibition of rare historical maps depicting the region that became the state of Utah from its earliest imaginings by European cartographers through the historical process that produced the modern state's boundaries. For details, an an online exhibit previewing these maps, visit history.utah.gov/utahdrawn.

 

Day at the Utah Capitol Dedicated to History in Action

ush-6695-1SALT LAKE CITY — The Utah Division of State History invites lovers of Utah history to attend Utah History Day on the Hill, Friday, January 27, from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. in the State Capitol Rotunda.

This public event showcases history in Utah from the classroom to the archives. Learn more about hands-on history education through Utah’s National History Day program, and view a selection of prized historic maps of Utah from the 1500s to statehood. Continue reading