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The Seventh Census of the United States: Utah and Slavery

The Seventh Census of the United States was scheduled to be counted in 1850. In the provisional state of Deseret, Brigham Young was named the census agent, but before the census could be taken Congress created Utah Territory. Congress appointed Young as the territorial census agent. In addition to the delay that caused, census officials did not receive materials and instructions due to slow mail service.

Finally, April 1, 1851, became the reference date for the Seventh Census in Utah Territory. Assistant agents E. D. Rich, Reuben McBride, Brigham H. Young, and Thomas Bullock began the count using lined papers to record the data because they still hadn’t received official blanks. In July 1851, after the enumeration was completed, Thomas Bullock and Robert Campbell began to recopy the entire census.

On October 31, 1851, a copy was sent to the United States Census Superintendent. This copy—the “official” copy—did not list all the slave inhabitants of Utah on a Schedule 2 for each county. The copy Campbell made of the original enumeration did not show any slaves living in Utah. Known black slaves are listed along with the free white population, giving a false impression that no one was held in bondage in the territory. The only exception is the Schedule 2 for Utah County which shows slaves who were on the way to San Bernardino, California, with their masters. John Bernhisel had advised LDS leaders, who were interested in seeing Utah Territory become a state, to hide the slave population. The official copy of the 1850/1851 census does just that.

The published, official version the 1850 census for Utah that is housed in the National Archives and reproduced on websites is not the “original” version that shows more of the real slave population for the territory. The original version is housed with LDS church records in the Church History Library in Salt Lake as MS 2672.

The different versions of the census have made it very difficult to count and identify slaves held in early Utah. If historians only look at the readily available official census, it gives a skewed picture of who was really in the territory and what their legal status was. Looking at the original version is necessary to get a more accurate count.

IMAGE I-“Official” Schedule 2-Slave Inhabitants in Utah County, Deseret

This image shows the slave schedule submitted to the federal government. It is the published version that shows up on websites which names slaveholders and their slaves who were planning to leave Utah and settle San Bernardino. A few of those listed in that schedule, like Hark Lay and Vilate Crosby, are listed in the Slave Schedule and also among the listings of “Free Inhabitants of Great Salt Lake County” (Schedule 1). The comment “Going to California” written in the remarks column seems to be there to assure federal officials that slaves then in Utah Territory would be leaving.

IMAGE II-Original Schedule 2-Slave Inhabitants-Utah, Salt Lake, and Davis Counties, Utah Territory

This image is the earlier original slave schedule for three counties. It is part of the version of the 1850/51 census that remained in LDS archives. It names some of the black slaves who were not going to California but would continue to live with their masters in Utah. It is, by no means, a complete list of Utah’s slaves, but it does include the African-American Redds. Since there is nothing listed in the column that asked for manumission information for Venus, Chaney, Luke, Marinda, or Amy, it is evidence they were still considered to be the property of the Redd family in 1851. Sam’s status is qualified by the comment that he will be free when he is twenty-one.

Even though Schedule 2 was intended to be an enumeration of slave inhabitants, someone lined out the word “slave” in the title and “colored” has been written in—again, apparently an attempt to disguise the real status of those listed on this schedule.

IMAGE III-“Official” Schedule 1-Free Inhabitants in Utah County, Utah Territory

This page lists the John Hardison Redd family in the “official” census. This is the version found in published census records. The black women and mixed race younger servants appear to be free blacks living in the same household with the white Redds. Their race is notated, but they are listed on the same schedule and in the same way that the Isaac and Jane Manning James family is listed—a free black family.

In the “official” version of the 1850/51 census, some other known slaves are listed on Schedule 1 in the same way as the Redd slaves, with a racial notation indicating they are black. Others who were living in Great Salt Lake and Davis counties are listed in Schedule 1 with no mention of their race. It gives the appearance that they were free white Utahns.

Other than the Redd slaves and Green Flake, none of the slaves listed in the original Schedule 2, reproduced here, are listed anywhere in the official version of the census.


Modernism at the University of Utah

Editors’ Note: Bim Oliver, author of “Modernism on Campus: Architecture at the University of Utah, 1945-1975,” offers here information on mid-century university building plans that never materialized. Through the process of researching modernism at the University of Utah, Oliver compiled a list of quotations that reveal a light, humorous side of university officials–and these are reproduced below. Finally, we offer additional photographs that didn’t make it into the published article.

Projects That Didn’t Materialize

Like many of the buildings in the post-World War II era, Merrill Engineering was constructed in phases.

The building that exists constitutes the first three phases of the project, completed in relatively short order starting in the late 1950s. But the original concept for the engineering center also envisioned both a circular auditorium and a six-story classroom building. The former was dropped early on, but the classroom building remained an integral part of the center’s design as “Phase IV.” It was never constructed, however, due to lack of funding. Image 3

As the Olpin Union was nearing completion, the Campus Planning Committee contemplated the construction of a “campanile” (bell tower) in the open space just south of the new building. “The campus badly needs some symbol indicative of education that will complete the triangle within the city,” the committee observed in 1958, “i.e., the capitol dome represents State government, the temple, religion and perhaps a campanile to represent education, and which can be plainly seen just as the other two elements are.” Although the campanile was never built, the Social and Behavioral Sciences Building eventually served as the landmark envisioned by the committee. Image 4

The bookstore today occupies the same site that it occupied in the years following World War II. Busy as it is today, it was considered of secondary significance by university planners. More to the point, they felt that its location was better suited for “a heavy use faculty, administrative or academic use.” So they considered two primary alternatives: a new building north of the Union and a structure between the Union and Orson Spencer Hall, “designed as an underground facility, with the floor level approximately the same as the level of the major academic mall.” Due to funding limitations, however, neither was constructed.

As noted in the related article, the primary funder of Pioneer Memorial Theater, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, asked the architects to draw up plans for Pioneer Memorial Theater as a structure that replicated the Salt Lake Theater that had been located downtown for several decades. An early drawing shows this replica that was later dispensed with in favor of a more Modernist design that better accommodated the technical requirements of the theater. Image 5

There were other proposals—some conceptual, some refined—that would have significantly changed the character of campus:

  • Two campus planning maps from 1959 and 1960 showed the library as an octagon and a circle, respectively, rather than the square that exists today. As the design was finalized, administrators suggested etching inspirational quotations into the cast-stone panels that enclosed the library, an idea rejected by the architects.
  • Early site plans and renderings of the plaza to the east of the Social and Behavioral Sciences Building envisioned an elaborate fountain.
  • An architect’s rendering of the Eccles Health Sciences Library included an expansive plaza between the library to the east, the Medical Center to the north, and the College of Pharmacy to the south.
  • Options for the medical towers and townhouses south of the Medical Center included the use of Sunset Tower (recently completed at 40 South 900 East), as well as a much larger complex on the current site that would have incorporated a varying configuration of high rises and lower “garden type” apartments.
  • In the late 1960s, as the university sought to increase its supply of married student housing, planners considered developing over 200 units at the mouth of Red Butte Canyon.
  • A primary goal during the post-World War II era was to concentrate academic buildings near the center of campus. One concept considered for achieving this goal was to construct two 14-story structures—one for the Chemistry Department and one for the Physics Department. As one planner noted, however, “Shoehorning two such units into that restricted area would be most difficult, as well as visually unpleasant.”
  • Early renderings and models for the Medical Center, Special Events Center, College of Pharmacy, and Physics Building reflect significantly different design ideas than those that were actually constructed.

Humorous Quotes from Author’s Research Notes

  • “This will be a place where future wives will be trained on how to turn out the hash without burning it.” (W.J. O’Connor, chair of the Board of Regents, at the October 1951 groundbreaking for the Sterling Sill Home Living Center)
  • “At an earlier date, I received a memo from you posing the hazard that the rocks to the east of the Union Building and Orson Spencer Hall could be if we were to have a riot on campus.” (Memo from B. Blain Bradford to Bruce H. Jensen in July of 1970)
  • “Most people would agree that the fountain (Tanner Fountain across the plaza from the library) seems to be attracting the ‘undesirable’ hippie type clientele who are oftentimes quite dirty and unkempt.” (Memo from J Elroy Jones in July of 1970) Image 1
  • “Dean Hiner (College of Pharmacy) said his faculty could get along with anybody; however, if it (the site for the new College of Pharmacy building) went to the Medical Center he wanted it understood that his profession was a dignified profession and was not to be browbeaten by the Medics.” (Memo from Martin Brixen in March of 1958)
  • “Since the development of married student housing will cut out about four holes on the golf course, it was decided that detailed plans should be drawn up as quickly as possible in order that it could be explained to the Fort Douglas Club people.” (Minutes of the Planning Committee in August of 1956)
  • Avard Fairbanks first dean of the College of Fine Arts (reacting to the emergence of Modernist ideas on campus): “The corruption of art students’ principles stems from being exposed to foreign art manglers, the subversive doctrine of [-]isms, Communist-inspired and Communist-connected. These influences have one boasted goal: the destruction of our cultural tradition and priceless heritage.” (quoted in Anne Palmer Peterson. Years of Promise: The University of Utah’s A. Ray Olpin Era, 1946-1964. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press, 2009.)
  • Orson Spencer Hole (Utah Daily Chronicle, April 17, 1956) Image 2

Photo Gallery

Image 1. Tanner Fountain. Courtesy of University of Utah Archives.

Image 2. From the Utah Daily Chronicle, April 17, 1956. Courtesy of Utah Digital Newspapers.

Image 3. This initial concept for the Merrill Engineering Center included a circular auditorium and six-story classroom building. Courtesy of University of Utah Marriott Library Special Collections.



Image 4. The original plans for the Union building included a “campanile” or bell tower in the area to the south of the building. Courtesy of University of Utah Archives.

Image 5. An early rendering of Pioneer Memorial Theater as a replica of the Salt Lake Theater. Courtesy of University of Utah Archives.


Utah Historical Quarterly Web Extras

First published in 1928, the Utah Historical Quarterly, the state’s official history journal, features articles, essays, and book reviews and notices on all aspects of the Beehive State’s history. Since 2014, current issues are now accompanied by rich online supplements.

In the digital medium, we are able to do more than can be done in print: reproduce UHQ articles and essays accompanied with expanded photos, maps, and bibliographies, and publish photo galleries, primary sources, oral histories, podcast interviews, and other special features suitable for the web. See below for the current supplements and an archive of previous online content.

Click here for information on becoming a member of the Utah State Historical Society and receiving your own copy of the Utah Historical Quarterly. UHQ back issues are available online through a searchable database.


UHQ Fall 2016

Jedediah Smith's Southwestern Expeditions: An Interactive Map

Mountain Meadows Survivor F. M. Jones: A Conversation with Will Bagley

Nuclear Archival Resources

Canyonlands: A Photo Gallery

Utah Drawn – An Exhibition of Rare Maps



Summer2016UHQUHQ Summer 2016

Polygamy, A Play in Four Acts: Full Transcript

News from Salt Lake, 1847–1849: A Conversation with Andrew H. Hedges

Utah’s NASA Report: A Confidential Report

Remembering the Circleville Massacre


UHQ Spring 2016Cataract Canyon Boat Party

Tie-hacking and logging sites on the North Slope

Mary Stevens’ murder: A conversation with Roger Blomquist

Digital copy of James E. Talmage’s diary



UHQ Winter 2016

The Newsboy Walter B. Evans

Coda: Turn-of-the-Century Smallpox Vaccination

Early Utah Photographs by William Henry Jackson and Timothy H. O’Sullivan

The Great War’s Council of Defense: A Conversation with Allan Kent Powell

Ogden Canteen Log Books

Historic Salt Lake City Apartments of the Early Twentieth Century


2015FallUHQUHQ Fall 2015

John C. Frémont and the Mormons: A Conversation with Alexander L. Baugh

Photographs and Drawings from the Simpson Expedition, 1858-59

Susan Rhoades Neel on Earl and Pearl Douglass

Reflections on the Waterpocket Fold and Greater Capitol Reef, by Ralph Becker

Haldane “Buzz” Holmstrom on the Colorado River: A Gallery



UHQ Summer 2015

A Conversation with Marshall E. Bowen on Russian Molokans in Box Elder County, Utah

The Hill Creek Extension: A Portfolio of Primary Documents

Early Utah Women Inventors: A Conversation with Christine Cooper-Rompato

The Carol Carlisle Summer Wedding Dress Collection: A Photo Gallery

Ute and Shoshone Vocabularies


2015SpringUHQUHQ Spring 2015

Almon Babbitt and Early Utah Politics: A Portfolio of Documents
Introduced and transcribed by Bruce Worthen

Folklore and History: An Interview with Steve Siporin

Southeastern Utah Missile Launches

Extended Photo Gallery of the Green River Launch Complex


2015WinterUHQUHQ Winter 2015

UHQ Interviews: Utah Historiography
Conversations with Gary Topping on Utah Historiography and with Robert Parson on S. George Ellsworth

Charcoal Kilns: A Photo Gallery
Photos and captions by Douglas H. Page Jr.

Gallery of Female Imagery in Advertisements

Sounds of the Cathedral


2014FallUHQUHQ Fall 2014

Mormon and Federal Indian Policy: A Portfolio of Primary Documents

Mormon and Federal Indian Policy: A Portfolio of Primary Documents
Transcribed by Brent Rogers

An Interview with Noel Carmack and Connell O’Donovan on the 1855 murder of Isaac Whitehouse in Parowan, Utah, and the Art of Historical Storytelling

Water: Records in the Utah State Historical Society and the Utah State Archives

Ute Photographs


2014SummerUHQUHQ Summer 2014

Previous UHQ Cover Designs

The Making and Unmaking of Utah
By Jared Farmer

Race with the Sun
By Carl Kuntze

Memoirs: An Annotated Bibliography
Compiled by Caitlin Shirts

UHQ Spring 2016 Web Extras

Figure 7_High-Cut Stump

Tie-hacking and logging sites on the North Slope

Christopher W. Merritt, “Wooden Beds for Wooden Heads:” Railroad Tie Cutting in the Uinta Mountains, 1867–1938

To see the historic tie-hacking and logging sites on the Uinta Mountain’s North Slope, take a guided tour with Christopher Merritt. We also provide a gallery of historic photographs of tie-hacking operations and (forthcoming) a conversation with Dr. Merritt on the tools, methodologies, and insights of historical archaeology.

Mary Stevens’ murder: A conversation with Roger BlomquistCase73_title

Roger Blomquist, “A Most Horrible Crime: The 1908 Murder of Mary Stevens in Orderville, Utah”

We interviewed Roger Blomquist about his research on the murder of Mary Stevens, a young woman from early twentieth-century Orderville, Utah. In our conversation Blomquist shares his perspective on the social dynamics of a close-knit community reeling from a high-profile murder case, details of the case, and what little we know about the short life of Mary Stevens.

Digital copy of James E. Talmage’s diary

Craig R. Smith, “James E. Talmage and the 1895 Deseret Museum Expedition to Southern Utah”

Talmage kept a detailed diary of his explorations during his explorations of southern Utah and northern Arizona geology. This handwritten diary dated July 23, 1894, to December 31, 1895, is located at the L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University. Volume 8 of Talmage’s private journal may be found here


Tie Hacking on the Uinta’s North Slope: A Photo Gallery

The following photos—both historic and contemporary—give color to the men and tie industry on the North Slope of the Uintas. The historic photos are from an unpublished report on file at the Uinta-Wasatch-Cache Supervisor’s Office in Salt Lake City: F. S. Baker and A. G. Hauge, “Report on Tie Operation, Standard Timber Company, Uinta National Forest, 1912–1913.” The modern photos were taken by the Utah Division of State History.

Historic Photos (1913)

MillCreek 1913 aspen frame to prevent ties running into ditch

MillCreek 1913 aspen frame to prevent ties running into ditch


MillCreek 1913 banking ties

MillCreek 1913 banking ties


MillCreek 1913 Bear River in distance possible flume site

MillCreek 1913 Bear River in distance possible flume site


MillCreek 1913 felling

MillCreek 1913 felling


MillCreek 1913 haulers and tie hacks camp section 3

MillCreek 1913 haulers and tie hacks camp section 3


MillCreek 1913 hauling supplies to Section 19

MillCreek 1913 hauling supplies to Section 19


MillCreek 1913 hauling ties

MillCreek 1913 hauling ties


MillCreek 1913 hewing 1

MillCreek 1913 hewing 1


MillCreek 1913 hewing 2

MillCreek 1913 hewing 2


MillCreek 1913 loading ties

MillCreek 1913 loading ties


MillCreek 1913 off the road

MillCreek 1913 off the road


MillCreek 1913 parking ties

MillCreek 1913 parking ties


MillCreek 1913 peeling

MillCreek 1913 peeling


MillCreek 1913 strip road after cutting tie timber

MillCreek 1913 strip road after cutting tie timber


MillCreek 1913 tie hacking equipment

MillCreek 1913 tie hacking equipment


MillCreek 1913 ties parked along strip road

MillCreek 1913 ties parked along strip road


MillCreek 1913 ties ready to be parked

MillCreek 1913 ties ready to be parked


MillCreek 1913 timber and brush after cutting tie timber 1

MillCreek 1913 timber and brush after cutting tie timber 1


MillCreek 1913 timber and brush after cutting tie timber 2

MillCreek 1913 timber and brush after cutting tie timber 2




























Contemporary Photos (2015)










































Mary Stevens’ Murder: A Conversation with Roger Blomquist


On April 21, 1908, Joseph Stevens found the body of his eighteen-year-old sister in a side canyon of Orderville, Utah. The murder of Mary Stevens–and subsequent conviction of Alvin Heaton Jr.–stunned and divided the small community. We spoke with Roger Blomquist about the murder and its aftermath, as well as the process of investigating such a heart-breaking and little-recognized story.

Roger Blomquist received his PhD at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and taught history at both Brigham Young University and Utah Valley University. His South Pass historical fiction series will have a projected five volumes. For more information, go to In addition to writing and teaching history, he is an accomplished saddle maker.





Emigration Canyon Railroad Served SLC Builders’ Needs

Emigration Canyon Railway Company 5

Emigration Canyon Railway Company

Becky Bartholomew
History Blazer, January 1996

In the late 1800s a building boom occurred in Salt Lake City. Concrete had not yet been developed that was strong enough to be used for building foundations, so granite and sandstone blocks were used instead. Quarries in Little Cottonwood Canyon furnished the granite. Red and white sandstone came from quarries in Emigration Canyon. Initially, heavy wagons were used for hauling sandstone out of Emigration Canyon into the city. As the demand for stone escalated, this proved a cumbersome mode of freighting.

A steam railroad up the canyon would have been expensive and created a fire hazard as well. But electric freighting was proving feasible in other parts of Utah and the country. A group of promoters led by Brigham Young's grandson, LeGrand Young, hit upon the latter. The Emigration Canyon Railroad was incorporated in 1907. Within a year the 14-mile line was in operation. Its city terminus and yards were located near the western end of the present University of Utah stadium parking lot. Its route passed by Mount Olivet Cemetery, Sunnyside Avenue, the Wagner Brewery near the mouth of the canyon, and up what is now Highway U-65 to the Killyon's Canyon turnoff, with a spur to the quarries. Where the upper canyon was too steep, switchbacks were cut so that the grade seldom exceeded 6 percent, except the final mile to Pinecrest.

The line's flatbed freight cars were probably made-over trolley cars. Fifty of these miniature, four-wheeled cars hauled sandstone from the quarries to the yards near Fifth South and University Street where they were unloaded and the stone taken by wagon to various building sites. Two box cab motors pulled the cars, powered by an electric transformer built far up the canyon.

Shipler Commercial Photographers, Train Passengers July 21, 1909

Shipler Commercial Photographers, Train Passengers July 21, 1909

Soon recreationers, who could reach the western Emigration terminus by city trolley, began asking for rides to Pinecrest Lodge in Killyon's Canyon. So in 1909 two elegant, motored passenger cars with trailers were added to the system. Three years later several more such cars were added. All were open-air; the line could not run in winter anyway. According to Ira L. Swett, "summer cottages began springing up all through the canyon." The route was surely scenic. The rails crossed and recrossed Emigration Creek some 16 times, and Point Lookout at about 7,000 feet gave passengers a view of the valley below.

The little Emigration Canyon excursion and freighting line was short-lived. Within a decade concrete had supplanted building stone as the preferred foundation material, and the line's passenger revenues were not enough to justify continued operation. At the start of World War I the system was dismantled. The passenger cars were sent to Tacoma, where they transported workers to the shipyards. The rail, spikes, and steel from the freight cars were donated to war manufacturing. Company officials divided the remaining property---"four battered old shovels."

Emigration Canyon Railway Company 7

Emigration Canyon Railway Company 7

Now all that can be seen of the line is an occasional stretch of railbed used by hikers and mountain bikers, and the upper station, now part of the new Pinecrest Bed & Breakfast Inn.

Sources: Ira L. Swett, Interurbans of Utah (Los Angeles, 1954); Stephen L. Carr and Robert W. Edwards, Utah Ghost Rails (Salt Lake City: Western Epics, 1986).



CODA: Turn-of-the-Century Smallpox Vaccination

Ben Cater’s article in the winter 2016 issue of the Utah Historical Quarterly introduces us to the religious and cultural dynamics that pitted working and lower middle-class Mormons accustomed to popular folk medicine against professionally trained doctors and public health officials over smallpox vaccination at the turn of the twentieth century. Religion was the wedge in the vaccination controversy—and it was a wedge with particular force in Salt Lake City, as prominent voices on both sides weighed in on the issue.

Surprisingly, as Cater writes in his larger study, a dissertation completed at the University of Utah titled “Health, Medicine, and Power in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, 1869–1945,” religious wars over health and sanitation in Salt Lake City largely dissipated thereafter. Progressive reformers from various religions—the LDS church included— worked together on public health initiatives ranging from sewage and sanitation to welfare services for the poor and workplace safety. Race and class overshadowed religious conflict in twentieth-century health reforms.

Views about vaccination have a particularly interesting back story. “The Saints, who historically followed their own prophetic medical codes, and as a result usually opposed vaccination, increasingly advocated vaccination and regular medicine after the Second World War,” Cater argues. By 1976, perhaps ironically given earlier opposition to vaccination, Salt Lake City had become the most vaccinated municipality in the country, and LDS officials were supporting immunization for the swine flu. As Cater writes on page 346 in his dissertation:

Progressive members of the church led this change, as did First Presidency, which in September 1976 issued a circular advising all churchgoers to obtain the swine flu immunization, which it dubbed, “a cure without a disease.”[1] The Deseret News published favorable articles about the vaccine and the apparent deadliness of the swine flu, as did the Salt Lake Tribune; photographs of Utahns lining up at vaccination centers and receiving jet injections of the vaccine served to rally support for it. By early December, more than half of Utah’s residents received vaccinations to yield a higher rate than the national average.[2] To be sure, some Mormons rejected immunization—and at least one person claimed medical injury due to vaccination—but they remained an exception in a religious community that seemed increasingly “normal,” and which underwent a revolution in its public health and medical understanding.[3] Most Mormons viewed orthodox medicine not as a Victorian-era pseudo-science that empowered gentiles over Mormons—a view that many Saints held during the late nineteenth century—but as a value-neutral endeavor used and appreciated by Mormons and non-Mormons alike.

This is not to say that religion did not influence the way people thought about public health. Cater acknowledges that while his research begins to explain what he calls “a revolution in its public health and medical understanding,” more work needs to be done in this area. Consider, for example, that KSL has reported that “each year since 2009, kindergarten and seventh grade [immunization] exemptions in Utah have crept up.”[4] Parents have all kinds of reasons for choosing not to immunize their children. But what’s behind the uptick in exceptions, and what role, if any, does religion continue play in this issue?

Perhaps another talented historian will extend Cater’s research to the present to explore more contemporary trends.



[2] Deseret News, September 27, 1976; September 30, 1976; October 1, 1976; October 13, 1976; Salt Lake Tribune, October 12, 1976; October 13, 1976; October 14, 1976; Garfield County News, September 23, 1976; September 30, 1976; November 25, 1976; Vernal Express, November 4, 1976; November 11, 1976; December 9, 1976.

[3] A man from Kaysville, Utah, filed a tort lawsuit against the federal government and its immunization program after suffering GBS. One Utahn also died allegedly due to the vaccination. Salt Lake Tribune, December 17, 1976.

[4] Daphne Chen, “With more parents choosing not to vaccinate, Utah on brink of losing ‘herd immunity,’”, accessed February 15, 2016,

Utah and the Great War: A Conversation with Allan Kent Powell

We sat down with Kent Powell, a distinguished Utah historian, to talk about the state’s involvement in the First World War. Powell’s research provides much insight about the coordination of home front efforts by the council of defense—an organizing mechanism that extended from the federal government to the county level—and a host of community groups. In this interview, we also discuss the experience of ethnic minorities, especially Germans, during WWI. Finally, we learned a bit about Powell’s own experiences during more than forty years with the Utah State Historical Society.