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Utah Historical Quarterly Winter 2017


Volume 85, Number 1 (Winter 2017 Issue):


Published since 1928, the Utah Historical Quarterly is the state’s premier history journal and the source for reliable, engaging Utah history. Join the Historical Society for your own copy.

Each issue of the Utah Historical Quarterly is accompanied with rich web supplements that introduce readers to sources, photos, interviews, and other engaging material. These “extras” are located at history.utah.gov/uhqextras.

WEB EXTRAS: See here 


IN THIS ISSUE


The Utah Historical Quarterly first devoted an issue entirely to architectural history in 1975, with “Toward an Architectural Tradition”; just over a decade later came a second such issue, investigating “Architecture at the Turn of the Century.” The time has come to add to this body of work. In this issue of UHQ, we focus on historic preservation and on place-based history of the built environment.

Historic preservation has a variety of meanings, depending on one’s perspective and experience. In the broadest of definitions, it encompasses the movement to document and save that which is meaningful to our collective history. While to some this phrase may convey the stoppage of time, to others it represents change. Places are not frozen; they are always evolving. The historic preservation process gives us a chance to collectively determine if and how historic places work within the context of a changing built environment. You can’t see historic preservation in a museum. While history is physically present around us every day, it’s part of a temporary museum undergoing permanent change.

Preservation embraces a cross-section of community-based practices and institutions that include historic architecture and archaeology, as well as museums, libraries, and archives, festivals, tourism, and long-lived businesses. Though representing even a thread of all these areas in a special issue would be a challenge, the essays in this issue demonstrate the breadth of knowledge of Utah’s architectural historians and archaeologists, highlighting some of the tremendous
research and writing in the field. The authors’ expertise and the UHQ’s support of this type
of research help generate more public understanding or places that matter. This issue demonstrates the important role of historic preservation in Utah in determining how our state changes for the better when we consider places of meaning—what I refer to in my opening essay as sites of conscience.

Bim Oliver served as a consultant in the documentation of the midcentury development of the University of Utah campus. The years after World War II saw extensive growth in student population, though it took the state twenty-five years to catch up to the demand for greater access and new academic programs. The buildings constructed during those years of development and change are now frequently discussed—and targeted—for demolition. One goal of Oliver’s documentation was to foster greater public appreciation for why these places were built in the first place and how they were used. Although they look different than the older structures forming Presidents Circle, Oliver argues, midcentury, Modernist buildings still deserve preservation.

Given the amount of federally owned public lands in Utah, partnerships between the managing federal agencies, interested stakeholders, lessees of federal property, and the public at large are essential in administering the cultural resources on those lands. Richa Wilson, a Forest Service architectural historian, offers an overview of the evolution of Forest Service architecture in Utah dating to the early twentieth century. She shows how buildings constructed in the state’s forests both reflected and departed from mainstream trends. The changing nature of federal
forest management and policies gave each period distinctive design characteristics that continue to be identifiable today.

In his essay, Thomas Carter, an emeritus professor at the University of Utah, argues that historic
preservationists derive cultural meaning through analysis and drawing. Through this series of artistic drawings, Carter highlights a wide range of building types and forms, architectural styles, and influences in construction. His essay also demonstrates the importance of drawing to historic preservation and how that skill is fading with each generation.

Finally, Sheri Murray Ellis, a cultural resource consultant, details the growth and decline of the Ogden Union Stockyard. This large and profitable facility came to exist largely through the instruments of technology—especially the railroad—and, in the end, newer technologies made the yards obsolete. Today, they are the site of redevelopment efforts.

I want to acknowledge my tremendous appreciation to the authors in this issue and to the UHQ editors for their willingness to produce the issue and persistent, professional guidance to oversee its completion.

Kirk Huffaker, Guest Editor
Preservation Utah

 


ARTICLES

Becoming More Conscientious of Utah’s Sites of Conscience
By Kirk Huffaker

Modernism on Campus: Architecture at the University of Utah, 1945–1975
By Bim Oliver

Building the Forest Service in Utah: An Architectural Context
By Richa Wilson

Studying the Unstudied: Utah Drawings from the Western Regional Architecture Program Collection, Marriott Library, University of Utah, 1982–2016
By Thomas Carter

The Last Word in Stockyard Construction: The Rise and Fall of the Ogden Union Stockyard
By Sheri Murray Ellis


BOOK REVIEWS

Leisl Carr Childers, The Size of the Risk: Histories of Multiple Use in the Great Basin. Reviewed by Joseph E. Taylor III

Matthew L. Harris and Newell G. Bringhurst, eds., The Mormon Church and Blacks: A Documentary History. Reviewed by Russell Stevenson

Larry Gerlach, Alma Richards, Olympian. Reviewed by Chris Elzey


BOOK NOTICES

Jonathan Foster, Lake Mead National Recreation Area: A History of America’s First National Playground

Photographs by Peter Goin, Essays by Peter Friederici, A New Form of Beauty: Glen Canyon beyond Climate Change

Modernism at the University of Utah

Editors’ Note: Bim Oliver, author of “Modernism on Campus: Architecture at the University of Utah, 1945-1975,” offers here information on mid-century university building plans that never materialized. Through the process of researching modernism at the University of Utah, Oliver compiled a list of quotations that reveal a light, humorous side of university officials–and these are reproduced below. Finally, we offer additional photographs that didn’t make it into the published article.


Projects That Didn’t Materialize

Like many of the buildings in the post-World War II era, Merrill Engineering was constructed in phases.

The building that exists constitutes the first three phases of the project, completed in relatively short order starting in the late 1950s. But the original concept for the engineering center also envisioned both a circular auditorium and a six-story classroom building. The former was dropped early on, but the classroom building remained an integral part of the center’s design as “Phase IV.” It was never constructed, however, due to lack of funding. Image 3

As the Olpin Union was nearing completion, the Campus Planning Committee contemplated the construction of a “campanile” (bell tower) in the open space just south of the new building. “The campus badly needs some symbol indicative of education that will complete the triangle within the city,” the committee observed in 1958, “i.e., the capitol dome represents State government, the temple, religion and perhaps a campanile to represent education, and which can be plainly seen just as the other two elements are.” Although the campanile was never built, the Social and Behavioral Sciences Building eventually served as the landmark envisioned by the committee. Image 4

The bookstore today occupies the same site that it occupied in the years following World War II. Busy as it is today, it was considered of secondary significance by university planners. More to the point, they felt that its location was better suited for “a heavy use faculty, administrative or academic use.” So they considered two primary alternatives: a new building north of the Union and a structure between the Union and Orson Spencer Hall, “designed as an underground facility, with the floor level approximately the same as the level of the major academic mall.” Due to funding limitations, however, neither was constructed.

As noted in the related article, the primary funder of Pioneer Memorial Theater, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, asked the architects to draw up plans for Pioneer Memorial Theater as a structure that replicated the Salt Lake Theater that had been located downtown for several decades. An early drawing shows this replica that was later dispensed with in favor of a more Modernist design that better accommodated the technical requirements of the theater. Image 5

There were other proposals—some conceptual, some refined—that would have significantly changed the character of campus:

  • Two campus planning maps from 1959 and 1960 showed the library as an octagon and a circle, respectively, rather than the square that exists today. As the design was finalized, administrators suggested etching inspirational quotations into the cast-stone panels that enclosed the library, an idea rejected by the architects.
  • Early site plans and renderings of the plaza to the east of the Social and Behavioral Sciences Building envisioned an elaborate fountain.
  • An architect’s rendering of the Eccles Health Sciences Library included an expansive plaza between the library to the east, the Medical Center to the north, and the College of Pharmacy to the south.
  • Options for the medical towers and townhouses south of the Medical Center included the use of Sunset Tower (recently completed at 40 South 900 East), as well as a much larger complex on the current site that would have incorporated a varying configuration of high rises and lower “garden type” apartments.
  • In the late 1960s, as the university sought to increase its supply of married student housing, planners considered developing over 200 units at the mouth of Red Butte Canyon.
  • A primary goal during the post-World War II era was to concentrate academic buildings near the center of campus. One concept considered for achieving this goal was to construct two 14-story structures—one for the Chemistry Department and one for the Physics Department. As one planner noted, however, “Shoehorning two such units into that restricted area would be most difficult, as well as visually unpleasant.”
  • Early renderings and models for the Medical Center, Special Events Center, College of Pharmacy, and Physics Building reflect significantly different design ideas than those that were actually constructed.

Humorous Quotes from Author’s Research Notes

  • “This will be a place where future wives will be trained on how to turn out the hash without burning it.” (W.J. O’Connor, chair of the Board of Regents, at the October 1951 groundbreaking for the Sterling Sill Home Living Center)
  • “At an earlier date, I received a memo from you posing the hazard that the rocks to the east of the Union Building and Orson Spencer Hall could be if we were to have a riot on campus.” (Memo from B. Blain Bradford to Bruce H. Jensen in July of 1970)
  • “Most people would agree that the fountain (Tanner Fountain across the plaza from the library) seems to be attracting the ‘undesirable’ hippie type clientele who are oftentimes quite dirty and unkempt.” (Memo from J Elroy Jones in July of 1970) Image 1
  • “Dean Hiner (College of Pharmacy) said his faculty could get along with anybody; however, if it (the site for the new College of Pharmacy building) went to the Medical Center he wanted it understood that his profession was a dignified profession and was not to be browbeaten by the Medics.” (Memo from Martin Brixen in March of 1958)
  • “Since the development of married student housing will cut out about four holes on the golf course, it was decided that detailed plans should be drawn up as quickly as possible in order that it could be explained to the Fort Douglas Club people.” (Minutes of the Planning Committee in August of 1956)
  • Avard Fairbanks first dean of the College of Fine Arts (reacting to the emergence of Modernist ideas on campus): “The corruption of art students’ principles stems from being exposed to foreign art manglers, the subversive doctrine of [-]isms, Communist-inspired and Communist-connected. These influences have one boasted goal: the destruction of our cultural tradition and priceless heritage.” (quoted in Anne Palmer Peterson. Years of Promise: The University of Utah’s A. Ray Olpin Era, 1946-1964. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press, 2009.)
  • Orson Spencer Hole (Utah Daily Chronicle, April 17, 1956) Image 2

Photo Gallery

Image 1. Tanner Fountain. Courtesy of University of Utah Archives.

Image 2. From the Utah Daily Chronicle, April 17, 1956. Courtesy of Utah Digital Newspapers.

Image 3. This initial concept for the Merrill Engineering Center included a circular auditorium and six-story classroom building. Courtesy of University of Utah Marriott Library Special Collections.

 

 

Image 4. The original plans for the Union building included a “campanile” or bell tower in the area to the south of the building. Courtesy of University of Utah Archives.

Image 5. An early rendering of Pioneer Memorial Theater as a replica of the Salt Lake Theater. Courtesy of University of Utah Archives.

 

Utah Historical Quarterly Current Issue

Published since 1928, Utah Historical Quarterly is the state’s premier history journal and the source for reliable, engaging Utah history. Join the Historical Society for your own copy.

Each issue is accompanied by rich web supplements that introduce readers to sources, photos, interviews, and other engaging material.


UHQ Spring 2018 — Volume 86, Number 2


The Crimson Cowboys: The Remarkable Odyssey of the 1931 Claflin-Emerson Expedition
By Jerry D. Spangler and James M. Aton

Read how modern archaeologists rediscovered a 1931 expedition and see photos from 1931 and the present.

 

 

Small but Significant: The School of Nursing at Provo General Hospital, 1904–1924
By Polly Aird

Follow this link for Aird’s exhaustive research files.

 

 

The Mountain Men, the Cartographers, and the Lakes
By Sheri Wysong

See the maps analyzed in Wysong’s article and read her narrative of the life of David H. Burr. Hear Sarah Vowell offer a humorous take on the life of the dour Charles Preuss.

 

 

Remembering Topaz and Wendover
By Christian Heimburger, Jane Beckwith, Donald K. Tamaki, and Edwin P. Hawkins, Jr.

 

 

 

 

Voices from Drug Court: Community-Based Oral History at Utah State University
By Randy Williams

Access audio from a 2017 conference session about “Voices from Drug Court” and audio and transcripts from the entire project.

 


IN THIS ISSUE

During the summer of 1931, a team from Harvard began exploring the rich archaeology of the Tavaputs Plateau and the Uinta Basin. The Claflin-Emerson Expedition, as it was known, was an ambitious venture that required some 400 miles of horseback travel. The expedition produced information of great value to other researchers that remained unpublished and essentially untouched for decades. In the spring of 1989, Jerry Spangler “stumbled upon” his first Claflin-Emerson Expedition site in Nine Mile Canyon, “A series of round, semi-subterranean pit houses on a bench overlooking the valley floor. Below one pit-house floor, we excavated the burial of a child. . . . At the time, I did not know that it was one of the many sites the Claflin-Emerson team first visited in 1931 in Nine Mile—no one did—because we did not have access to their 1931 field journals and they never published a report.”[1] In the first article of this issue of Utah Historical Quarterly, Spangler joins with James Aton in revisiting the sites explored by the Harvard team and recreating the social aspects of this “last great horseback adventure in the history of American archaeology.”

In the mid-1910s, Venice Foote, a young woman from Provo, Utah, followed in the footsteps of an older sister and began training at Provo General Hospital’s nursing school. As Foote’s life progressed, she married and had children but she also served as a private nurse for Reed Smoot’s family and as the chief psychiatric nurse at the Utah State Hospital—accomplishments dependent upon her training. All told, some forty-four women graduated from Provo General’s nursing program; it was, as Polly Aird argues, “small but significant.” Because of their nursing educations, most of those women obtained meaningful work in hospitals, maternity homes, public health institutions, and elsewhere. Aird uses public records and, especially, the tools of genealogical research to reconstruct the school’s history and painstakingly trace the life of each woman who attended it.

In our third article, Sheri Wysong ponders how Pruess Lake, a small feature on the Utah-Nevada border, came to be named for Charles Preuss, a cartographer who never visited it. Through careful comparison of historical maps, Wysong reaches a fascinating, complex answer. It involves many of the explorers and mapmakers of the nineteenth century—including William Ashley, Jedediah Smith, Charles Preuss, and David H. Burr—and a second lake, Beaver, that no longer exists. The history of the naming of Pruess Lake and its connection to Beaver Lake hints at efforts to honor Charles Preuss and teaches about the shifting representation of geography in the American West.

Fourth, we present a collection of speeches and essays that consider two difficult moments in American history: the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II and the use of the atomic bomb. Written by a scholar of the Japanese-American experience, the founder of the Topaz Museum, an attorney who argued Korematsu v. United States (1983), and a lifelong liaison between Japan and American, these pieces ask how we can thoughtfully deal with the past in public forums.

Our fifth piece, an update from the Fife Folklore Archives, discusses the background of the Cache Valley Utah Drug Court Oral History Project. This significant public history project used oral history methodology to preserve the experiences of drug court participants. Finally, as with too many recent numbers of UHQ, the spring issue closes with a memorial to a great scholar of Utah history.

[1] Jerry D. Spangler, “Re-discovering the 1931 Claflin-Emerson Expedition,” Utah Historical Quarterly Web Extras, accessed June 14, 2018, history.utah.gov/uhqextras.

Book Reviews

Gregory F. Michno, Depredation and Deceit: The Making of the Jicarilla and Ute Wars in New Mexico
Reviewed by Jennifer Macias

Steven G. Baker, Rick Hendricks, and Gail Carroll Sargent, Juan Rivera’s Colorado, 1765: The First Spaniards among the Ute and Paiute Indians on the Trail to Teguayo
Reviewed by Robert McPherson

Catherine S. Fowler and Darla Garey-Sage, eds., Isabel T. Kelly’s Southern Paiute Ethnographic Field Notes, 1932–1934, Las Vegas
Reviewed by Heidi Roberts

Richard E. Turley, Jr., Janiece L. Johnson, and LaJean Purcell Carruth, eds., Mountain Meadows Massacre: Collected Legal Papers
Reviewed by Gene A. Sessions

Book Notices

Robert S. McPherson and Fin Bayles, Cowboying in Canyon Country: The Life and Rhymes of Fin Bayles, Cowboy Poet

Michael Austin and Ardis E. Parshall, eds., Dime Novel Mormons

Roberta Flake Clayton, Catherine H. Ellis, and David F. Boone, Pioneer Women of Arizona, 2nd ed.

UHQ State History Research

State History Research

At State History, we’re all about helping you conduct professional or personal research in a quick, efficient manner. We know that you want to find what you’re looking for so you can move on with your research. Check out some of our most popular research tools and resources:

History

  • Publications Search – online access to all of State History’s publications, including back issues of Utah Historical Quarterly, all twenty-nine county histories, and the full set of Beehive History, Utah Preservation, and other periodicals
  • Utah History to Go – a comprehensive online course for Utah history, containing articles, exhibits, and historic photographs
  • I Love History – an engaging resource for kids and grade-school students

Historic Preservation & Archeology

Collections and Databases

External resources

Research Libraries and Archives

Online Primary Sources

  • Utah Digital Newspapers – first statewide newspaper digitization program to pass 1 million pages in content, this site has papers ranging from the 1850s to 2010
  • Library of Congress – the research arm of Congress and the largest library in the world, with millions of books, recordings, photographs, maps, and manuscripts in its collections
  • Highway 89 Collection – online exhibit of photographs, manuscripts, and printed items
  • Western Waters Digital Library – digital collection of resources on water in the West
  • Utah American Indian Digital Archive – portal to digital resources about the history and culture of Utah’s native peoples
  • Ancestry – an online resource for family trees and related genealogical information, as well as historical photos and records

Museums and Other Local Resources

Oral Histories

The Southern Utah Oral History Project

Research Requests

We sometimes receive research requests and inquiries from press officers, historians, researchers, public and private organizations, and interested citizens. Although we cannot devote a great deal of time to these inquiries, we are happy to direct individuals and organizations to salient resources. On occasion, we are able to provide more involved research assistance. Let us know how we can assist by contacting:

Utah Historical Quarterly editors at uhq@utah.gov or (801) 245–7209 or (801) 245–7257

When information from our collections or from our editors is published or otherwise used in print or online, please use the source/courtesy line: Utah State Historical Society and/or Utah Historical Quarterly. Please also refer readers to our homepage: uhq.utah.gov.

Appreciate our services and collections? Love Utah History? Show your support by becoming a member of the Utah State Historical Society today at www.heritage.utah.gov/history/become-a-member or by “liking” us on Facebook at www.facebook.com/UtahStateHistory.

 

Historical Resources for Grade School Students (see also Utah History Day)

Thank you for contacting Utah State History. The standard seventh-grade school text on Utah history is The Utah Journey, published by Gibbs Smith. For even younger students, we recommend State History's website “I Love History” (ilovehistory.utah.gov) as an engaging resource for Utah history. A fun book for kids is Will Bagley and Pat Bagley's This is the Place: A Crossroads of Utah's Past (2001). High-school and college students would benefit from Thomas G. Alexander's Utah, The Right Place (2003). An interesting blog on Utah history, suitable for 4th and 7th grade-age students, is “The Mystery of Utah History”. The blog's creator, Lynn Arave, was for many years a reporter for the Deseret News.

For additional resources, we highly recommend consulting State History's homepage for a number of good links and resources (http://heritage.utah.gov/history/research-history). If you are interested in specific topics, events, or people in Utah history, visit “Utah History To Go” and our digitized collection of the Utah Historical Quarterly and other Utah State Historical Society publications at uhq.utah.gov.

The Division of State History is proud to operate Utah History Day, the National History Day affiliate for Utah students in grades 4-12. History Day brings history to life for kids by giving them the tools to become amateur historians. Kids learn how to do real historical research, then create a final project that showcases their work. Projects are judged in a series of competitions that culminate in annual state and national contests. Visit our website (Utahhistoryfair.weebly.com/research-resources.html) for history resources helpful to kids working on their projects. To contact the state coordinator, email utahhistoryday@gmail.com.

 

 

UHQ Questions

Please direct questions regarding submissions and publication in Utah Historical Quarterly to Dr. Holly George, (801) 245-7257, hollygeorge@utah.gov, or Dr. Jedediah Rogers, (801) 245-7209, jedediahrogers@utah.gov.

To view the quarterly online (all but the current issue), visit https://heritage.utah.gov/history/publications

You may receive the quarterly by becoming a member of the Utah State Historical Society; contact us at (801) 245-7231.

UHQ Copyright Assignment Agreement

We require authors to sign a copyright release (transfer) agreement, warranting that the author is the sole owner of all rights in the work and that the work has never been published before, and providing for the copyright to be taken and held in the name of the Utah State Historical Society.

This grants the author an irrevocable, nonexclusive royalty-free license to use the work in any manner following its publication in the Utah Historical Quarterly, providing the proper copyright notice is included in each published work.

UHQ Review Procedures

The editorial staff first reviews all manuscripts for appropriateness, completeness, and adherence to guidelines and standards.

We then return manuscripts to the authors with recommendations for additional work or send them to the board of editors and other outside readers for their comments and recommendations. The review process usually takes two to three months but can sometimes take as long as six months, depending on our backlog of submissions.

Once we accept a manuscript for publication, we publish it as soon as possible. However, length and subject can affect scheduling priorities. Generally, the editorial staff works about six months ahead of the publication schedule in finalizing issues for publication. Given the number of manuscripts submitted and accepted, there is usually a lag time of approximately one year from the time a manuscript is accepted until it is published.

Note: all manuscript submissions will be evaluated for print and digital publication. If accepted for print, we reserve the right to determine whether content from a manuscript accepted for print publication is also suitable for the web. Editors reserve the right to determine, in consult with the authors, whether a manuscript is appropriate either in part or in whole for digital or analog publication. We also accept digital-only submissions.