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Big Time Planned at Cedar Breaks

“Big Time Planned at Cedar Breaks,” Parowan Times June 15, 1934

“Plans are under way for a celebration, one of the biggest ever held in Southern Utah, at Cedar Breaks as a formal opening of that beautiful scenic area as a National Monument. The date tentatively selected for this celebration is July 4th and unless it is found to conflict too much with the plans of Southern Utah communities, that date will definitely be agreed upon by the committee which meets Sunday in Cedar City.

“The local chamber of commerce took the initiative in starting a move for such a celebration and named a committee to confer with the Cedar City chamber and with the Park superintendent at Zion. P. A. Clark and R. L. Fenton of this committee met with the president and other members of the Cedar chamber and a park representative last week end [sic] in Cedar city at which time tentative plans were made.

“These include a suitable program and a barbecue at the Breaks, with all the communities of Southern Utah invited to participate and with State and National figures asked to be present. Several bands will be there and probably the St. George choir. There has been some suggestions for providing a dance floor up there for the occasion, but that may be found impracticable.

“It is planned to barbecue about five steers to help feed the crowd that will be there and the county and other agencies are being asked for appropriations to defray the expenses.”

Breaks Monument Dedication Attended by Thousands

“Breaks Monument Dedication Attended by Thousands,” Iron County Record July 5, 1934

“Over three thousand people from Cedar and Parowan and other southern Utah communities gathered at Cedar Breaks on July 4th for the mammoth celebration marking the dedication of the breaks as a National Monument.

“The celebration attracted national, state, and high railroad officials who were gathered on the speakers stand at the dedication services held in the afternoon and which was the feature event of the celebration.

“Included in the group of distinguished visitors were Governor Henry H. Blood, President Heber J. Grant of the L.D.S. church; Carl R. Gray, president of the Union Pacific System; Dr. H. C. Bryant, assistant director of the Bureau of National Parks and Reservations; Leo A. Borah of Washington, member of the editorial staff of the National Geographic Magazine; Dr. George W. Middleton, prominent early booster for southern Utah park development. With Gray was a group of railroad officials including W. M. Jeffers, executive vice president of the Union Pacific System and president of the Utah Parks company; J. L. Haugh, vice president and assistant to the president; John W. Burnett, general superintendent of motive power and equipment; Emmett Cole and Otto Jobelman, assistants to Mr. Burnett; George M. Ashby, assistant to the executive vice president; H. C. Mann, chief engineer, Union Pacific System; B. M. Prater, chief engineer, O. S. L. and E. C. Schmidt, director of news service.

“Mrs. Henry H. Blood, wife of the governor, was present and made a few brief remarks when introduced from the stand.

“P. A. Clark of the Parowan Chamber of Commerce was in charge of the meeting and introduced Randall L. Jones, who acted as master of ceremonies, and to whom high tribute was paid for his activities in bringing about recognition of Cedar Breaks as a national attraction and development of the southern Utah Parks.

“Governor Blood, introduced as a ‘great governor and a great friend of the people of his state,’ spoke briefly to national conditions, maintaining while America had felt the hand of depression the situation here ws much better than in other countries, and that the people should be thankful for the help of a government interested in its people during such trying adversities. The governor urged that people of all the land be invited to view the scenic wonders of southern Utah, and called attention to the many and varied attractions grouped together in the small area of southern Utah and northern Arizona. He also referred to what had been done during the past decade to make it possible for people to see and enjoy these attractions, stating that approximately ten million dollars had been spent on road development alone.

“President Carl R. Gray stated that it was just twelve years ago that he made his first trip into southern Utah and visited the scenic attractions and pointed out that the Union Pacific development program had been carried substantially as planned on that trip, maintaining that it had been accomplished only through the fine cooperation of the National Park and National Forest Service and the people of southern Utah. He told of the railroad company’s development program at Bryce before it became a national park and how the company had deeded its holdings to the U.S. government, but that the deeds had been placed in escrow pending the fulfillment of certain development programs, particularly the completion of the Mt. Carmel highway.

“President Heber J. Grant congratulated the Union Pacific on the foresight that had made development of this section possible, and commended the people of southern Utah upon their awakening to the value of the scenic attractions of this region. He stated that he had visited the section for forty years and for many years never even heard of the Breaks or Bryce, the people apparently feeling that these areas were only so much waste land and of no value to them. He also commented on the great appeal that Utah held for people from other sections who visited here.

“Dr. Bryant, in charge of the educational department of the parks [sic] service, stated that the National Park system was not developed by city bred men but by pioneers, the idea first originating with a group of pioneers in the Yellowstone area. Since then the system has grown to 24 parks and 67 monuments. He pointed out that So. Utah was indeed fortunate in having such an area of these nationally recognized scenic attractions, and stated that only the superlative spots had been selected, which makes the naming of so many areas here even more remarkable. He stated that from a geological standpoint southern Utah was one of the most interesting in the world, since in no other section could such a study of ‘space and time’ in the making of the earth be made. He told briefly of the plans of the park service in featuring developments from a scientific and inspirational point of view.

“Leo Borah of the [National] Geographic magazine complimented the people of southern Utah on their spirit of development and was high in his praise of the beauties and interesting features he had found in this section.

“Dr. George W. Middleton maintained that American [sic] contained attractions that were unequaled in Europe and stated that Americans should come to worship at their own shrines of beauty instead of going to distance [sic] lands to worship at the shrines of false Gods. He contended that the people should find peace away from the war contending countries across the sea, and keep out of foreign conflicts and continue to keep the flag of the U.S.A. waving in integrity and honor.

“P. P. Patraw, superintendent of Zion and Bryce National Parks and Cedar Breaks National Monument, spoke briefly, stating that he accepted the custody of the Breaks with pleasure, extended an invitation to all to come there often. He told briefly of the study that would be made of development possibilities at the Breaks and promised a development program that would show to the world all the beauties of the area.

“The dedicatory prayer was offered by Wm. R. Palmer, president of the Parowan Stake.

“Brief remarks were also made by James E. Gurr, supervisor of the Dixie National Forest; Wm. Osborne District Engineer of the State Road commission, and Ben Cameron, representing the Associated Civic Clubs of Southern Utah.

“The Cedar City band, Parowan band and Cedar Junior band were present, furnishing music not only at the meeting but intermittently during the entire day.

“At noon a free barbecue was served by the Parowan Chamber of Commerce and the afternoon was devoted to sports arranged by the Cedar City Chamber of Commerce and under the direct supervision of Vertis Wood, recreational supervisor for Cedar City, and to sight seeing on the rim of the Breaks and in the various canyons leading to the National Monument.

“The success of the affair, sponsored by the Chambers of Commerce of Cedar City and Parowan, surpassed the fondest expectations of those in charge.”

Corporate Social Impact

Businesses in Utah are thriving, adding jobs and resources to the economy. Some companies have started Employee Volunteer Programs to further give back to the community. An Employee Volunteer Program (EVP) is an organized effort to motivate and encourage employees to volunteer their time and skills to the community. UServeUtah has compiled a few resources to help you develop your own EVP. We will continue to add to these resources in order to support your efforts in engaging employees in volunteerism.

Please take our survey of Utah companies and organizations about Employee Volunteer Programs.

Businesses with an employee volunteer program, please use this link.
Businesses without an employee volunteer program, please use the this link.

Employee Engagement Tools

How to Start an Employee Volunteer Program
How to Get Employees Engaged in Volunteer Work
The 7 Practices of Effective Employee Volunteer Programs
How to Pledge 1% of Employee Time
How to Pledge 1% of Product
Points of Light Resources for Companies

Public Art Proposals Requested for Southern Utah University Project

The Utah Public Art Program of the Division of Arts and Museums, in association with the Division of Facilities and Construction Management and Southern Utah University School of Business, has published a call for letters of interest and qualifications from artists or artist teams interested in creating public art for the new facility being built on the campus of SUU in Cedar City.

The School of Business Art Selection Committee is interested in working with an artist(s) to develop site specific work which is harmonious with the design of the building and contribute to an environment that inspires students to think creatively toward new heights. It is hoped this site specific work will encourage thought, exploration, and contemplation, while still being accessible in concept and intent.

The full description and how to apply is at The deadline for receipt of material from interested artists is 5 p.m. MST, June 9, 2017. Applications may be submitted online at

The Public Art Program was created by the Utah State Legislature in 1985 with the passage of the Percent-for-Art-Act. This statute allows for 1 % of construction costs for new or remodeled State facilities to be added to the project for the commissioning or acquisition of art that is site specific to the facility and community. To date, over 230 works have been placed in State facilities statewide. For more information visit or contact Jim Glenn at or 801-245-7271 or Mackenzie Morton at or 801-245-7270.

Rendering courtesy: VCBO Architecture



Questions? Feedback? Contact Kirsten Darrington at






Utah Statewide Archaeological Society

The Utah Statewide Archaeological Society (USAS) was originally formed out of the Statewide Archaeological Survey established by Dr. Jesse Jennings in 1951. USAS is a group of individuals not necessarily trained as archaeologists, but share a common interest and passion for understanding, stewarding, and preserving Utah’s rich archaeological legacy. Today, there are over 300 members in several different chapters. Please visit their website here: and see how you can join in the adventure.

Utah Division of State History has a long partnership with USAS, and this page is dedicated to furthering the joint missions of both organizations. Please see the 1975 By-laws for the Society.

USAS Newsletters

In 2016, Janice Reed-Campbell of the Utah Division of State History’s Antiquities Section discovered binders full of USAS Newsletters, the earliest dating to 1955. Janice painstakingly scanned all of the newsletters in our collection and we are making them available through this page. Given size limitations on our website we can not post all the Newsletters, but we are offering a selection for download. If you see a particular newsletter you are interested in the table below please email Janice at and she will email you the newsletter directly. This is a great resource and includes some rarely seen writings of Dr. Jesse Jennings.

Year Month Selected Article (others are included in pdf)
1955 June • Utah Anthropology, An Outline of Its History, by Elmer R. Smith
November • Archaeological Evidence of Hunting Magic, by James H. Gunnerson
December • Archaeological Excavations Near Salina, Utah, by Dee C. Taylor
1956 March • 1955 Surveys in Castle Valley, Hanksville, Aquarius Plateau and San Juan County, by James Gunnerson
June • Radiocarbon Dates from Danger Cave, Utah, by J. D. Jennings
• Petrographs, by J. H. Gunnerson
October • Archaeological Activities of the University of Utah, by James H. Gunnerson
December • Early Man in the West, by Jesse D. Jennings
• Each to the Other, by William A. Ritchie
1957 March • Salvage Archaeology, by James H. Gunnerson
June • The Recognition of Archaeological Sites, by Lloyd Pierson
• How Old Is It, by James H. Gunnerson
September • Archaeology and the Scientific Method, Part I, by Fay-Cooper Cole
• Upper Colorado River Basin Archaeological Salvage Project, Summer 1957, by Jesse D. Jennings
December • Archaeology and the Scientific Method, Part II.-and the Scientific Method: Part II, by Fay-Cooper Cole
• Preliminary Report of 1957 Work at Snake Rock, by James H. Gunnerson
1958 March • An Underground Storage Pit Near Moab, by Lloyd Pierson
• Plant and Animal Material in Archaeological Interpretation, by James H. Gunnerson
June • Pottery in Archaeological Interpretation, by James H. Gunnerson
• A Pueblo Site in Utah Valley, by Carl Hugh Jones
September • A Preliminary Note on Excavations at the Coombs Site, Boulder. Utah, by Robert H. Lister
• Archaeological Survey of the Kaiparowits Plateau-A Preliminary Report, by James H. Gunnerson
December • Archaeological Excavations in Glen Canyon: A Preliminary Report of 1958 Work, by William Lipe
• Archaeological Survey in Glen Canyon: A Preliminary Report of 1958 Work, by Don Fowler
1959 March • The Moab Museum
June • Archaeological Survey in the Dead Horse Point Area, by James H . Gunnerson
September • The Utah Statewide Archaeological Society, by H. Merrill Peterson
• A Preliminary Note on 1959 Excavations at the Coombs Site, Boulder, Utah, by J. Richard Ambler
December • The Utah Statewide Archaeological Survey: Its Background; and First Ten Years, by James H. Gunnerson
1960 March • A Sketch of Utah Prehistory, by Alice P. Hunt
June • Cataloguing Archaeological Collections, by Dee Arm Suhm
• The Artifacts of Camp Maple Dell, Payson Canyon, Utah County, Utah, by John L. Cross
September • The Value and Function of the Local Archaeological Society, by Jesse D. Jennings
• A Percussion Industry of the Wyoming Desert, by Merrill Peterson
• Archaeological Notes on the Northeastern Margin of Great Salt Lake, by F. K. Hassel
December • Ute Tipi Poles, by Lloyd Pierson
1961 March • A Preliminary Report of the 1960 Archaeological Excavations in Glen Canyon, by Floyd W. Sharrock
• Hovenweep – The Deserted Valley, by Don Ripley
• 1960 Archaeological Survey and Testing in the Glen Canyon Region, by Don D. Fowler
June • An Open Site Near Plain City, Utah, by F. K. and Carol Hassel
• Excavations at the Bear River Site, Box Elder County, Utah, by David M. Pendergast
• Puebloid Cultures in Iron County: Progress Report, by Marshall McKusick
September • The Prehistory of Central and Northern Utah, by Melvin Aikens
• USAS – UCRBASP Joint Excavation in the Plainfield Reservoir, by David M. Pendergast
December • Artifacts From a Site In Box Elder County. Utah, by Warren C. Hageman
• A Preliminary Report of the 1961 Archaeological Excavations In Moqui Canyon and Castle Wash, by Floyd W. Sharrock
• Archaeological Survey and Testing in Moqui Canyon and Castle Wash, 1961, by Kent C. Day
1962 March • Unusual Petroglyph Find in Utah
June • Preliminary Report on Excavations in Southwestern Utah, 1962, by C. Melvin Aikens
September • Unusual Historical Indian Burial Report, by George W. Tripp
December • Additional Notes and Comments on Atlatl Weights in the Northwest, by B. Robert Butler
• Manti Mystery
• History and Pre-History of Bear Lake Indians
1963 March • Unusual Petroglyph Find in Utah
June • Preliminary Report on Excavations in Southwestern Utah, 1962, by C. Melvin Aikens
September • Unusual Historical Indian Burial Report, by George W. Tripp
December • Additional Notes and Comments on Atlatl Weights in the Northwest, by B. Robert Butler
• Manti Mystery
• History and Pre-History of Bear Lake Indians
1964 March • Unusual Historical Indian Burial Report, by George W. Tripp
• Extension of Black’s Fork Culture Material, by Leona Fetzer Wintch
• Ethnohistoric Study in the Glen Canyon, by Catherine L. Sweeney
June • Ta Tahumara, by John L. Cross
• Cultural Development in the Great Basin Part I, by James A. Goss
September • Surface Material From a Site in Weber County, by F. K. Hassel
• Cultural Development in the Great Basin Part II, by James A. Goss
December • Authentic Clovis Point Find Reported
• Indian Cache Uncovered, by Merrill Peterson
• Cultural Development in the Great Basin Part III, by James A. Goss
1965 March/June • Indian Languages of the Great Basin, by Wick R. Miller
September • Pictographs from Parrish Canyon, Davis County, by Grant Reeder M.D.
December • Preliminary Report on Excavations at the “Injun Creek” Site, Warren, Utah, by C. Melvin Aikens
1966 March • Preliminary Report on Excavations at the Nephi Site, Nephi, Utah, by Floyd W. Sharrock
June • Preliminary Report on Excavation at Gunlock Flats, Southwestern Utah, by Kent C. Day
September • Evidence of Acculturation among the Indians of Northern Utah and Southeast Idaho: A Historical Approach: Part I, by John R. Dewey
December • Plains Relationships of the Fremont Culture – A Summary Statement of a Hypothesis, by C. Melvin Aikens
• Evidence of Acculturation among the Indians of Northern Utah and Southeast Idaho: A Historical Approach: Part II, by John R. Dewey
1967 March • Archaeological Survey of Whitmore Wash and Shivwits Plateau, Northwestern Arizona, by Gordon C. Baldwin
June • A Mountain Sheep Skull Exhibiting Unusual Modifications, by George Tripp
• A Handled Olla From the “Injun Creek” Site, by F. K. Hassel
September • A Sketch of Utah Prehistory, by Alice P. Hunt
December (Includes 1967/1968) • Hogup Mountain Cave: Interim Report, by C. Melvin Aikens, Kimball T. Harper, Gary F. Fry
• Split Twig Animal Miniatures in the Southwestern United States, by Grant M. Reeder, M.D.
1969 March • A New Variant of the Fremont Moccasin, by Kenneth Lee Petersen
June • The Determination of Prehistoric Dietary Patterns by Means of Coprolite Analysis; A Glen Canyon Example, by David J. Steele
September • Testing Matheny Alcove, Southeastern Utah. by Dee F. Green
• “Manitou Stones” by John L. Cross
• Radiocarbon Dates From Danger Cave, Utah, by Jesse D. Jennings
December • Some Historic Indian Burials form Utah Valley. by Evan E. DeBloois
1971 March • The Eastern Uinta Fremont, by David A. Breternitz
June • Parowan Fremont, by John P. Marwitt
• Salt Lake Fremont, by Gary F. Fry
1972 March • Why Historical Archaeology?, by Dale L. Berg
• A Pueblo II Structure, San Juan County, Utah, by Ray T. Matheny and Dee F. Green
1974 September • The Excavation of Innocents Ridge. by Alan Schroedl
• A Great Basin Small Tool Tradition, by Alan Bryan and Ruth Gruhn
• The Lakeman Point, by Dean Caldwell
December • An Archaeological Survey in Sevier, Emery and Garfield Counties, by Claudia Berry
1975 March • The Excavation of Cowboy Cave, by Alan R. Schroedl
April • A 40,000 Year Old Stone Industry on Lake Bonneville’s Alpine Beach, by Leland L. Clark, M.D., M.S.
July • Archaeology and Alluvium in the Grand Gulch-Cedar Mesa Area, Southeastern Utah,by William D. Lipe and R.G. Matson
1976 July • The Bull Creek Excavations, Garfield County, Utah, by Alan R. Schroedl
1982 April • Atypical Stone Tools at Red Rock Predating Lake Bonneville’s 19,000 Year-Old High
• Stand Beach – Geology, by Lealand L. Clark, M.D. and Reuben L. Bullock
• The Uintah Heights Site-Weber County, Utah. By Mark E. Stuart
• The Long Park Sites: An Archaeological Survey, by Mark E. Stuart
• An Unusual Surface Find From Weber County, Utah, by Mark E. Stuart

DesignArts ’15 Opens at the Rio Gallery, Celebrating Design Across the State – 31 Aug 2015

SALT LAKE CITY — DesignArts ’15 celebrates the best of design in Utah. This annual exhibition featuring designs, prototypes, and produced samples by designers in Utah’s various design fields.  This year, Juror Randy J. Hunt selected seventeen Utah designer’s projects ranging from snack containers to architecture for an Emigration Canyon home.

“Design, in its many forms, is alive and well in Utah” said Hunt. “This is no more evident than in the submissions and selections for DesignArts Utah 2015. The ingenuity and creativity that come from a designer’s mind always impress, and this year’s selections are no exception.”

Randy J. Hunt, is Creative Director at Etsy, where he leads a team of designers creating the end-to-end experience, both online and off. Etsy is a global commerce platform empowering independent creative business in nearly every country in the world. Etsy was honored with the National Design Award in 2014. Hunt feels strongly that designers must be able to build what they design, a perspective that fits naturally with Etsy’s culture of making and the love of craftsmanship.

Hunt chose Epicenter’s “This is Green River” magazine, exhibit and film as the juror’s award winner in the professional category. “This is Green River” examines the past, present and future of Green River, creating a portrait of a small western desert town in the twenty-first century. Hunt chose two award winners in the student category.  BYU Student and industrial designer Carter Zufelt’s  HDPE Milk Stool and Side Table was awarded recognition for his furniture created with the goal of recycling thousands of compressed and recycled plastic bags while creating useful and beautiful objects. University of Utah student and architect Massih Nilforoushan received recognition for his work on the concept for a Maritime Museum on the Chicago River. Nilforoushan’s design incorporates wooden facades with solar responsive openings all the while recalling traditional methods of wooden boat and ship making.

DesignArts ’15 opens at noon, Sept. 4 at the Rio Gallery in Salt Lake City and will continue through Oct. 16, 2015.  A reception and celebration coinciding with Salt Lake Design Week and Salt Lake Gallery Stroll will be hosted in the gallery on Oct.16 from 6-9 p.m. for the designers, friends, family, and public. The Rio Gallery is located at 300 S. Rio Grande Street and it is open Mon. through Fri. from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., but will be closed Monday, Sept. 7. Further information is available online at

If you have questions about the DesignArts Utah program or the exhibition please contact Jim Glenn at and 801.245.7271

2015 Annual History Conference Session 1 Abstracts

8:45 – 10:15 a.m.

The Breadth of Regional History: The Case of Southeastern Utah (Room 101)

  • Panel: Robert McPherson (chair), Floyd O’Neill, Kent Powell, and Gary Topping.

What Paleontological, Perishable, and Coprolite Remains Tell Us About Past Cultures (Room 102)

  • Lori Hunsaker (chair)
  • Daniel King: Jurassic Jones: The Archaeology of Paleontology
  • Joseph Bryce: Marks in the Clay: Impressions and What They Tell Us
  • Madison N. M. Pearce: Prehistoric Diets and Medicines of the Utah Great Basin: Using Ethnohistory to Explore Botanical Remains From Spotten Cave Human Coprolites

Engaging Minorities and Making Room (Room 104)

  • Elizabeth Heath (chair)
  • Lloyd Pendleton: Utah’s Ten Year Plan to End Chronic Homelessness
  • Gerrit van Dyk and Jeremy Ingersoll: Their Hispanic Heritage: The Preservation of Different Cultures in LDS Spanish-speaking Congregations

Politics and Religious Authority (Room 105)

  • Greg Thompson (chair)
  • Gary Bergera: Ezra Taft Benson Meets Nikita Khrushchev, 1959: Memory Embellished
  • Kenneth and Geoffrey Cannon: Separation of Prophet and State? The 1914 Reelection of Reed Smoot
  • Jason Friedman: “Unless the ‘Saints’ decorate my personage with plumage and ‘something to make it stick’”: Duncan McMillan and the fight for Wasatch Academy

Magna: An American Story (documentary) (Suite B)

Trish Hull (chair)

The Breadth of Regional History


Why do the histories of individual—even isolated—regions matter, and what do they mean in relation to the broader contexts of state, national, and world history? This session brings together a panel of distinguished Utah historians to discuss the meaning of regional history by examining the historiography of southeastern Utah.Panel BiosRobert S. McPherson is Professor of History at USU Eastern Blanding Campus and a member of the Board of State History.Floyd A. O’Neill is the founding director of the American West Center at the University of Utah.Allan Kent Powell is the former editor of Utah Historical Quarterly and a long-time voice for public history in Utah.

Gary Topping is archivist of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Salt Lake City.

What Paleontological, Perishable, and Coprolite Remains Tell Us About Past Cultures

Daniel King Abstract

To the general public, archaeology and paleontology are often thought of as the same field of study. In spite of that belief the two disciplines can be separated by millions of years. Still, fossils, ancient cultures, and historic groups do connect. Fossils have been found in Fremont, Ancestral Puebloan, and historic Native American contexts across Utah. Ethnographic accounts relate how fossils were often used for medicinal purposes, quick healing, and even protection against shootings. The presence of fossils in the multicultural contexts evinces the idea that history, on any level, has always been a part of the human experience regardless of time, region, or culture.

Daniel King Bio

Daniel King is a M.A. student studying archaeology and museum practices at Brigham Young University. He currently works as a publications assistant for the department of anthropology, as well as a research assistant for the Office of Public archaeology. His research interests include ancient plant use in northern Mexico, the development of social complexity in mid-level societies, and integrating technology into archaeology and museum studies. King has worked on many international archaeological projects in Jordan and Mexico, as well as local projects here in Utah and Nevada.

Joseph Bryce Abstract

Archaeologists use material remains to draw conclusions about the past but often a lot of physical objects do not survive in the archaeological record. Perishable material, which likely composed a high percentage of prehistoric artifacts, is largely missing from archaeological interpretations. Fortunately, impressions left in soft clay can provide a way that this “missing majority” can still be studied. Corn, baskets, cordage, and structural beam impressions as well as fingerprints have often been overlooked, but hold a wealth of information about prehistoric peoples of Utah. This paper will examine how impressions recovered from Fremont and Anasazi sites have been used to gain a more complete picture of Utah’s prehistory.

Joseph Bryce Bio

Joseph Bryce is a M.A. student studying archaeology and museum studies at Brigham Young University. He currently works as the collection manager at the Museum of Peoples and Cultures. Research interests include Fremont ceramics, basketry, bone tools, digital archaeology, experimental archaeology, museum studies, historical archaeology, PXRF, photogrammetry, and many other varied and interesting topics. Bryce has worked at several archaeological projects in Utah, Nevada, Idaho, and Missouri. 

Madison N. M. Pearce Abstract

Seed analysis of eighteen prehistoric human coprolites found in Spotten Cave (42 UT 104), coupled with ethnographic data, illustrates how and why former inhabitants of Utah Valley consumed both wild and cultivated plants. This research has provided crucial data for rebuilding prehistoric diets by comparing variations in macrobotanical evidence found in coprolites and at sites. As one of the few botanical analyses for prehistoric populations in Utah Valley, the research here is important because of its diachronic review of plants from 5580±120 BP to 50 BP.

Madison N. M. Pearce Bio

Madison Pearce is currently pursuing a master’s at BYU in archaeology, emphasis paleoethnobotany. Her B.A. was also in archaeology at BYU. She currently assists Dr. Terry Ball in phytolith morphometrics and has assisted in several projects with the Office of Public Archaeology, notably the Old Provo Tabernacle and Wolf Village in Goshen. She and her husband have one son, Ronan, whom they juggle between each other as they work on their respective degrees. 

Engaging Minorities and Making Room

Lloyd S. Pendleton Abstract

In 2003, Governor Olene Walker was invited to have the State of Utah participate in the development of a Ten-Year Plan to end chronic homelessness in Utah. Ten percent of the homeless population is chronically homeless, and they cost communities between $20,000 and $40,000 per person per year. A new housing model had been developed, Housing First, that took chronically homeless people off the street or out of shelters and put them into housing, with case management services. Utah adopted a plan using the Housing First model and reduced the chronic homeless count by 91% since 2005. This presentation will review how Utah accomplished this reduction.

Lloyd S. Pendleton Bio

For more than thirteen years Lloyd has been an advocate for the homeless. In 2004, as a loaned executive from the LDS Church, he took the lead in writing and implementing the State of Utah’s Ten-Year Plan for ending chronic homelessness. In 2006, Lloyd retired from his church employment and went to work for the state as Director of the Homeless Task Force to continue implementation of the plan to end chronic homelessness and reduce overall homelessness by 2015. Lloyd is a graduate of Brigham Young University and holds a Bachelor’s degree in Political Science and a Master’s of Business Administration.Van Dyk / Ingersoll AbstractThis paper will demonstrate how the environment of LDS Spanish-speaking congregations has helped or hindered the cultural preservation of the Hispanic people. With the rapid growth of the Hispanic demographic of the LDS church, it is important that their rich heritage is given an environment conducive to, and accepting of, their customs and identity. The many different countries that are represented in LDS Spanish-speaking congregations each have their own distinct histories that have resulted in different customs. The LDS Church members from these distinct backgrounds must find the way to preserve their own individual traditions as a group with many traditions. We will analyze how well this challenge has been met. 

Politics and Religious Authority

Gary Bergera Abstract

In 1966, Ezra Taft Benson, a high-ranking official of the LDS Church and former U.S. Secretary of Agriculture, delivered a speech on the campus of LDS-owned Brigham Young University in which he summarized his encounter with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev in September 1959. Benson told BYU students that Khrushchev had bragged to him, in part, “[W]e’ll keep feeding you small doses of socialism until you’ll finally wake up and find you already have Communism. We’ll so weaken your economy until you’ll fall like overripe fruit into our hands.” The present essay examines the accuracy of Benson’s 1966 and later recitals of Khrushchev’s alleged comments.

Gary Bergera Bio

Gary James Bergera is managing director of the Smith-Pettit Foundation, Salt Lake City, Utah. He is author of Conflict in the Quorum: Orson Pratt, Joseph Smith, Brigham Young; co-author of Brigham Young University: A House of Faith; editor of Line Upon Line: Essays on Mormon Doctrine, The Autobiography of B. H. Roberts, and Statements of the LDS First Presidency: A Topical Compendium; and co-editor of Joseph Smith’s Quorum of the Anointed: A Documentary History, 1842-1845, and The Nauvoo Endowment Companies: A Documentary History, 1845-1846. His publications have received numerous awards.Cannon AbstractWhen Reed Smoot ran for reelection in 1914, his “Federal Bunch” was declining, Woodrow Wilson was President, and the new 17th Amendment required popular election of U.S. Senators. Utah’s “Bull Moose” Progressives and Democrats nominated James Henry Moyle, a charismatic and talented attorney (and a devout Mormon), in a coalition ticket. The vote was close, with Smoot winning by a plurality. Why did Smoot win? Moyle accused President Joseph F. Smith, but the story is more complicated than that. The story, issues, and numbers of the 1914 Senate election make it one of the most compelling in Utah’s history.

Cannon Bios

Ken Cannon is a lawyer and independent historian in Salt Lake City who also teaches commercial law at the local law school. He has published widely on Utah and Mormon history and has published and lectured extensively on corporate bankruptcy law. He serves on a number of professional boards and has been a Fulbright Scholar in Finland. Other than spending time with his lovely wife, Ann, their five sons, three daughters-in–law, and three grandchildren, Ken likes it best when he is researching in musty archives or trying to make sense of his research.Geoffrey E. Cannon is a recent graduate of Brigham Young University in political science. During his time as a student there, he worked as a research assistant for David B. Magleby, conducting research on campaign finance and voting behavior. He also played an integral role in the 2014 Utah Colleges Exit Poll, a biennial study undertaken by multiple colleges and universities in the state. Finally, he was an undergraduate research fellow at the Center for the Study of Elections and Democracy from May of 2013 to April 2015.

Jason Friedman Abstract

In the spring of 1875, Presbyterian Minister Duncan McMillan moved to Mount Pleasant. He acquired a building, erected a school, a church, and a legacy all in the span of five years. He found success with the help of a strong apostate contingent and despite the efforts of Brigham Young and the Mormon leadership. Despite personal hardship and various threats on his life, McMillan founded a school that would “endure like the Wasatch Mountains.”

Jason Friedman Bio

Raised in New York City, Jason Friedman has worked in academia for fourteen plus years. Having earned his PhD in history from Michigan State University in 2009, currently Friedman teaches history and political science at Wasatch Academy and serves as director of the honors credit program. A modern American historian, Friedman’s primary research focuses on the cultural issues surrounding the American presidency and the balance of power during the 1970s. However, in deference to his current position, Friedman has expanded his historical research to include the institutional history of Wasatch Academy, specifically the history of the school’s founder, Duncan McMillan.

Magna: An American Story

Panel Abstract

Magna: An American Story offers a captivating historical portrait of what has been called Utah’s quintessential American city. Magna began as an agricultural community but quickly evolved into an industrial center with the discovery of copper in the Oquirrhs. Magna came to embody a rare and diverse cultural heritage, and the community matured out of the powerful forces of exploration, discovery, industrialization, immigration, assimilation and shared purpose.

Robert K. Avery Bio

Dr. Robert K. Avery has been on the University of Utah Communication faculty for nearly four and a half decades, and over his career has earned numerous recognitions and honors across the areas of research, teaching, and service. He is the coauthor or editor of six books, more than seventy-five journal articles and book chapters, and over two hundred conference papers and presentations. He has held the honorary rank of University Professor at the U in recognition of his innovative contributions to undergraduate instruction and also has been awarded the special recognition of University of Utah Presidential Teaching Scholar.Trish Hull BioTrish Hull is president of the Magna Chamber of Commerce and Manager of the Magna Library. She has a BA in Political Science from BYU and MLS from Emporia State University. Trish is currently an employee of Salt Lake County Library Services as manager of the Magna Library. She is a past president of the Utah Library Association. She is also currently president of the Magna Chamber of Commerce. Trish has been a resident of Magna for 34 years.

2015 State History Conference Tours

iscOctober 3, 2015 Iosepa Tour

In 1889, Pacific Islander converts to the Mormon Church, established a community in Skull Valley, naming it Iosepa (i.e., “Joseph”). The settlement survived for 28 years, finally being abandoned in 1917.To celebrate the rich Asian and Pacific Islander heritage of Utah please join the Utah Division of State History and the Fort Douglas Military Museum for an introduction to the history and archaeological legacy of this community and its descendants. After a background lecture by Dr. Benjamin Pykles of the LDS Church History Department, the tour will head out to what remains of the Iosepa Townsite and Cemetery for a step back in time. While in Skull Valley the tour will take advantage of the proximity to see the original ruts and cuts from the Donner-Reed and Hastings Cutoff route of the California National Historic Trail with interpretive discussions along the way. The field trip will begin with a 9:00 am Iosepa lecture at the Fort Douglas Military Museum by Ben Pykles, then travel to Iosepa at 10:00 am, returning to Fort Douglas at 3:00 pm.  A boxed lunch will be provided.

Please note, separate paid $50.00 registration through Fort Douglas Military Museum is required for this tour! (tours are not included in the general free conference registration)

Register for the Iosepa Tour


topaz_7_fullOctober 10, 2015 Topaz Tour

This year marks the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II. It also marks the closing of the Topaz internment camp near Delta, Utah, where over 11,000 Japanese-Americans were imprisoned between 1942 and the camp’s closure in 1945. To commemorate and explore the rich and troubling history of this seldom-seen side of the American home front, the Utah Division of State History, the Fort Douglas Military Museum and the American West Center would like to invite you on a tour of the internment camp and the brand new Topaz Museum.

Admission to this day-long tour will include a box lunch and a copy of Yoshiko Uchida’s classic story of life at Topaz, Desert Exile: The Uprooting of a Japanese-American Family. Dr. John Reed of the University of Utah History Department will provide historical information en route.  The tour will leave Fort Douglas Military Museum at 9:00 am, returning to Fort Douglas Military Museum at 5:00 pm.  A boxed lunch will be provided.

Please note, separate paid $75.00 registration through Fort Douglas Military Museum is required for this tour! (tours are not included in the general free conference registration)

Register for the Topaz Tour

Apartment Buildings & Hotel/Motels Building Types

This typology for apartment building and hotel types is an outgrowth of our investigations into

Double House
Other Apartment Types

commercial architecture. Although apartment buildings have received some attention from historians in recent years, those studies have been largely confined to such major cities as New York, Washington, and Chicago. Little of significance from these studies is applicable to Utah. Research into 19th- and 20th-century publications on apartments or hotels gives some general information, but again, little of it applies to Utah buildings. The following classifications were developed specifically for apartment buildings and hotels in Utah.

This categorization system is based on the form of the building and its orientation to the site, and secondarily on the points of entry and the pattern of circulation within the building. Floor plans haveapartment1_large not been studied in detail. Thirteen major types have been identified, most with subtypes, ranging from the double house to the “H” apartment block.



Double houses are basically duplexes. Depending on the form, a duplex can have the appearance of two mirror-image halves of a building connected together, or of a single unit with fenestration double-house-A-drwg1_largesymmetrically arranged to reflect the interior division. There are a few types of double houses, which for purposes of survey fieldwork are not distinguished from each other in the Utah SHPO database. However, for general knowledge they are included here.


Double House: A
This type was referred to as the “double cottage” in pre-Civil War architectural works and as the “double residence” or “pair of houses” after the Civil War. It consists of two living units under one roof. The building is similar in scale and appearance to a single-family house. The two units usually have separate entries and may be either one or two stories high.

Double House: B
Version B of the double house is a horizontally divided building containing one flat or apartment per

floor. Unlike A, type B often has a flat roof and is more urban in character. This type may have either
a single common entry for both units or separate entries. Adding a mirror image of the façade of this building—in effect doubling it—creates the four-unit block, below.

Double House: C
Type C includes buildings of one, one and a half, or two stories joined together at one end (literally a
double house) creating a self-contained unit. This type includes flat-roof examples. More than two such units constitute row housing.

Like the double house, there are a several variations of historic apartment buildings, most of which are laid out in either a single- or double-loaded corridor or a walk-up. Again, for purposes of survey fieldwork the types listed below are not distinguished from each other in the Utah SHPO database but are included for general knowledge.

Four-Unit Block
The four-unit block in essence is the mirror-image duplication of the Double House: B type. Entries for the units may be found on either side of the common wall or in a series of doorways. A variation of this pattern is separate first-floor entries and a common entry for the two second-floor units.

Row House
A row house consists of three or more single-family housing units of one or two stories joined together. This type is quite rare in Utah.

Apartment Block: A
The basic apartment block has two or more stories containing multiple dwelling units. Such buildings may be either horizontal or vertical blocks, depending upon the number of stories and the orientation
of the building to the site.

Horizontal blocks may be sited parallel to the street on a wide but not very deep lot. In such cases multiple entries are common in the façade. Such entries lead to foyers with adjacent stairs and—in later, taller buildings—elevators to the upper floors. Off the foyers or stair landings are generally located two or more apartments. Two apartments off each foyer or landing usually indicate a basic plan of two apartments running the depth of the building and separated by a common wall.

Apartment Block: B
Sites with limited street frontage or narrow width but great depth can contain horizontal blocks with a
single entry in the façade. Within the building, the apartments are usually arranged in a line on either side of a central hall, an arrangement referred to as a “double-loaded corridor.” Occasionally, on wider sites, two such buildings may be constructed parallel to each other with an open court between them. In such cases they may have either the multiple entries of type A or the single-entry, double-loaded corridor of type B.

Apartment Block: C
Square or nearly square sites usually result in an apartment block of two or more stories with a vertical emphasis. Such buildings frequently have a central entry in the façade.

“L” and “T” Apartment Blocks
The “L” block has two or more stories of multiple dwelling units arranged in an “L” configuration. The building may be built close to the street corner with two sides facing the streets, or the configuration may be reversed so that the building is set back on the site and preceded by a forecourt. The “T” block is similar in construction; most frequently, the cross-piece of the “T” is placed adjacent to the street. This form is commonly placed on lots in the middle of the block.

“C” Apartment Block
This type is not to be confused with the “U” court. The two side wings projecting from the back of the “C” are usually not deep, and the open space confined within the shape is too shallow or too small to be considered a real court. Entry into this type may occur at the ends of the wings, or the building may have multiple entries at the back of the “C.”

“U” Court
In the “U”-court form, the court is usually oriented toward the street. Such configurations may have either a single entry point at the base of the “U” behind the court or multiple entries, often one entry facing the court in each wing and one in the base. As in the perpendicular Apartment Block: B, a single entry leads to a foyer, stairs and/or elevator and to a double-loaded corridor. In the case of multiple entries, two or more apartments are located on each floor. Examples of the “U” court may be one or more stories in height. A less common variation is the reverse “U” court, with the court oriented away from the street.


Hotel Court
A variant of the “U” court is the hotel court. In this type the first floor is reserved for commercial functions and the central court is open above that level. Laterally extended versions of this type containing a second court also can be found, as in the “E” or double court. The “E” court was a popular design for large hotels in urban areas

“H” Apartment Block
What appears at first glance to be a “U” court may turn out to be an “H” apartment block with a second court at the rear. Such designs provide improved light and ventilation to all units..

Following World War II, the inception of the “baby boom” brought an increase in family automobile vacations. The concept of long-distance road journeys had been around since the 1920s, when families would stay at auto camps and motor courts. However, the drastic increase in families hittingHuntingtonMotel_large

the open road because of expanded and improved highway infrastructure warranted a more easily accessible and less-expensive form of overnight lodging.

Motels became the standardized form that replaced motor courts as a home away from home. Unlike hotels, instead of being situated in urban centers, motels are usually located conveniently along interstate off-ramps and highways. Another differentiating factor is the exterior access to the rooms in motels, as opposed to access from interior hallways; however, this is not always the case.

Although the term “motel” was coined in the 1920s, it did not come in to popular usage until the late 1940s. Motels are typified by an L-, T-, or U-shaped plan, which includes guest rooms and a manager’s office. Motels built within the past 30-40 years may typically include a restaurant, which shares the parking lot, and a swimming pool.

Motels sought to distinguish themselves by implementing bright and sometimes quirky neon signage. However, this trend faded as more standard corporate identification became the norm.