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The Circleville Massacre: A Bibliography

Secondary sources

Culmsee, Carlton. Utah’s Black Hawk War: Lore and Reminiscences of Participants. Logan: Utah State University Press, 1973. (pp. 89-91)

Church Historian’s Office. Circleville Ward manuscript history, LR 1738 2, folder 1, LDS Church History Library.

Fullmer, Rollo L. A History of Circleville, Utah. Self-published, Rollo L. Fullmer, 2003. (pp. 16-23)

Martineau, LaVan. The Southern Paiutes: Legends, Lore, Language, and Lineage. Las Vegas: KC Publications, 1992. (pp. 58-59)

Newell, Linda King. A History of Piute County. Salt Lake City: Utah State Historical Society, 1999. (pp. 82-87)

Peterson, John A. Utah’s Black Hawk War, 1865-1872. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1998. (pp. 243-49)

Weeks, Sue Jensen. How Desolate Our Home Bereft of Thee: James Tillman Sanford Allred and the Circleville Massacre. Melbourne: Clouds of Magellan Press, 2014. (pp. 137-61)

Winkler, Albert. “The Circleville Massacre: A Brutal Incident in the Black Hawk War.” Utah Historical Quarterly 55 (Winter 1987): 4-22.

Primary sources (arranged chronologically)

Journal History, February 18, 1865, letter from Edward Tolton to Deseret News, LDS Church History Library. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE276255 Tolton provides an update on the Circleville settlement after its first year.

Edward Tolton letter to George A. Smith, March 21, 1865, George A. Smith papers, LDS Church History Library. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE703180

Tolton informs Smith that he was elected Probate Judge of Piute County and requests record books and supplies.

Deseret News (Weekly), June 28, 1865, vol. 14: 309. Tolton provides update on the settlement and crops.

Deseret News (Weekly), November 9, 1865, vol. 15: 37. Tolton provides an update on the settlement.

William J. Allred letter to Orson Hyde, November 25, 1865, Brigham Young incoming correspondence, Brigham Young collection, LDS Church History Library. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE3975004 Reports that two-thirds of the cattle in Circleville were stolen by a band of Indians. Men pursued the thieves, and the Indians shot one boy and possibly killed a man that had not been found.

George A. Smith letter to William H. Dame, February 26, 1866, George A. Smith papers, LDS Church History Library. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE705372 Instructs Dame to have 50-60 men ready at all times to ward off hostile Indians. We wish you to use due diligence to ascertain if a band of hostile Utes is in the vicinity of Circleville or that line of settlements, and if so report the same to us as soon as you can.”

Warren S. Snow letter to George A. Smith, March 14, 1866, George A. Smith papers, LDS Church History Library. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE703626 Informs Smith of his threats to shoot Sanpitch and his band “for we could not Put up with Killing and steeling enny longer.”

Silas S. Smith letter to George A. Smith, March 29, 1866, George A. Smith papers, LDS Church History Library. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE703626 Update on his movements in Circleville area.

Silas S. Smith letter to George A. Smith, April 10, 1866, George A. Smith papers, LDS Church History Library. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE703626 “Black Hawk is reported to be at East fish lake—if he could be struck before he comences his summer raids he would I think be crippled for the season.”

William H. Dame letter to George A. Smith, April 11, 1866, George A. Smith papers, LDS Church History Library. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE703626 “I have just received this by the hand of Bro John Wimmer, and thought it might be of some interest so I forward, it to you.” [The material Dame refers is previous letter from Silas Smith to Dame dated April 10]

Erastus Snow letter to Daniel H. Wells, April 25, 1866, Territorial Militia records, Series 2210, reel 6 item 1524, Utah State Archives. Report on Indian hostilities in southern Utah.

Jesse N. Smith letter to George A. Smith, May 2, 1866, George A. Smith papers, LDS Church History Library. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE703626 Mentions that “six Indian prisoners at Circleville made a rally on the guards by whom they were all shot down, and none escaped.”

William J. Allred letter to George A. Smith, May 5, 1866, George A. Smith papers, LDS Church History Library. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE708121 Detailed letter by Allred recounting the massacre and events preceding.

William J. Allred letter to George A. Smith, May 8, 1866, George A. Smith papers, LDS Church History Library. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE703626 Discusses instructions received from the First Presidency “that every settlement should be vacated” unless they had more than 150 to 500 families. Many of those from small settlements in the county have moved to Circleville.  Wrote to seek counsel about vacating Circleville.

Jesse N. Smith letter to George A. Smith, May 9, 1866, George A. Smith papers, LDS Church History Library. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE703626 Discusses the option of evacuating Circleville.

Deseret News (Weekly), May 10, 1866, vol. 15: 183. Letter to Deseret News from Edward Tolton requesting additional settlers and improved mail service.Tolton letter to Deseret News dated April 15, 1866. Discusses efforts to build defenses against Indian raids and also requests additional settlers to increase their safety.

Jesse N. Smith letter to George A. Smith, May 14, 1866, George A. Smith papers, LDS Church History Library. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE703626 Visit to Circleville; plans to hold meeting to encourage Panguitch settlers to move to Circleville.

William B. Pace letter to A. F. Macdonald, May 27, 1866, Territorial Militia records, Series 2210, reel 26 item 855, Utah State Archives. Military movements and strategy in Circleville region.

Erastus Snow letter to Daniel H. Wells, May 28, 1866, Territorial Militia records, Series 2210, reel 6 item 1527, Utah State Archives. Snow reports on what he has learned about the massacre. He writes: “rumor however has reached me only a few days ago of the slaughter of 15 or 18 Piede prisoners at Circleville. Which I suppose must be those, who were arrested and disarmed by Major Allred of which I acquainted you in my letter from Parowan on the 25th inst., which if the reports, which have reached me, be correct, must have taken place about the time I wrote to you, and though it was at that time in my district and part of Col. Dame’s regiment. I know not to this day, why and wherefore they were slain, nor have I ever learned of any accusation against them beyond suspicion of complicity, or of harboring spies from hostile bands, but whether those suspicions were well founded, I know not.”  Said that he left instructions with Colonel William Dame to see that the prisoners were treated kindly.

William J. Allred letter to Jesse N. Smith, June 1, 1866, Territorial Militia records, Series 2210, reel 6 item 1530, Utah State Archives. Discusses having Panguitch settlers moving to Circleville and the anxiety of many Circleville settlers to leave the area.

Jesse N. Smith letter to Warren S. Snow, June 3, 1866, Territorial Militia records, Series 2210, reel 6 item 1530, Utah State Archives. Recommends that a “force should be stationed at Circleville.”

  1. F. Cownover letter to William B. Pace, June 1, 1866, Territorial Militia records, Series 2210, reel 26 item 859, Utah State Archives. Describes the “unsettled condition” amongst Circleville residents and felt that a directive needed to be issued, from a proper source, to prevent a mass evacuation.

John Franklin Tolton, Memories of the Life of John Franklin Tolton, 1887, typescript, MS 4922, LDS Church History Library. Recounts events of the massacre.

Oluf Christian Larsen, Biographical Sketch of the Life of Oluf Christian Larsen, 1916, MS 1646, LDS Church History Library. Recounts events of the massacre.

Miscellaneous sources

Photo of David Monson