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Utah’s Latest Additions to the National Register

Check out the latest historic properties in Utah listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Hovenweep National Monument, San Juan County; Reddick Hotel–Ophir LDS Meetinghouse, Ophir; Warehouse Historic District (Boundary Increase), Salt Lake City; Roberta Sugden House, Salt Lake City; Smoot Dairy Farmhouse, Centerville.


Hovenweep National Monument
San Juan County

hovenweep-photoStatement of Significance:
The Hovenweep National Monument Archeological District is eligible for
nomination at the national level of significance under Criteria A, C and D in the areas of
Exploration/Settlement, Religion, Architecture, Prehistoric Archeology, Historic Aboriginal Archeology, and Historic Non-Aboriginal Archeology. The District also is nominated by implementing Criteria Consideration A: Religious Properties since many of the prehistoric structures were religious-use resources that hold significant historic and architectural affiliation. Regional contexts contain information that supports this nomination, specifically those prepared by the Colorado Council of Professional
Archeologists: Colorado Prehistory: A Context for the Southern Colorado River Basin (Lipe, Varien, and Wilshusen 1999), and Colorado History: A Context for Historical Archaeology (Church et al. 2007). Another document that was useful in preparing this nomination is the historical overview of the Canyons of the Ancients National Monument (Horn 2004).

The historic resources in Colorado meet the registration requirements outlined in the Great Pueblo Period of the McElmo Drainage Unit, A.D. 1075-1300 National Register of Historic Places MPDF.

The first period of significance for Hovenweep spans from the Archaic through ancestral Puebloan Pueblo III period (roughly 6,000 B.C. to A.D. 1290). This period of significance represents the on-going and persistent human adaptation to slightly changing climatic conditions on Cajon Mesa and within the McElmo Drainage Unit. Evidence has been found at Hovenweep that people have used or occupied the land multiple times during this period of significance in a variety of ways, utilizing mobile hunting and gathering strategies at times, and employing a horticultural and agricultural strategy at other times.

The second period of significance is A.D. 1874, when photographer W.H. Jackson first publicly used the term Hovenweep (a Ute word), to 1962, when the current boundary of Hovenweep was established, thus ending a period of time when multiple ethnic groups used the land to raise livestock. The period that spans 1290 to 1874 A.D. is not being considered as part of the Period of Significance because use of Hovenweep during this period of time cannot be adequately supported. Aboriginal Ute and Navajo were establishing habitation and grazing grounds in the Hovenweep area prior to and during this second period of significance. This lifeway and struggle for boundaries was further complicated by the arrival of Euro-American ranchers and settlers. Hovenweep contains multiple sites that include features (e.g. burnt hogans, sweat lodges,
ephemeral brush structures, and brush corrals), artifacts (historic tin and glass items), and inscriptions suggesting use of the area by herders representative of all of these ethnic groups. As Wilshusen and Towner state (1999:353-369), the post-Puebloan occupation period represents a time of cultural groups expanding into an “empty” landscape, with resultant competition and political and social change. Ultimately, the land was withdrawn from grazing by all of these cultural groups and was set aside as a protected archeological resource. Historic inscriptions found at the site, and as stated above the public use of the term “Hovenweep” by 1874 A.D., was the basis for setting
the beginning of the second period of significance at 1874 A.D. Hovenweep National Monument was established in 1923, and the period from 1923 through 1962 represents a period of time when grazing of the land was gradually phased out and the land was managed under the principles established by the NPS 1916 Organic Act. Hence, the second period of significance concludes at the year 1962 A.D.

Read the full nomination:
ut_san-juan-county_hovenweep-nm-final-jan-2016


Reddick Hotel–Ophir LDS Meetinghouse
Ophir, Tooele County

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Statement of Significance:
The Reddick Hotel/Ophir LDS Meetinghouse, built in 1903-1904, is locally significant under Criterion A for its association with the development of Ophir, Utah in the first half of the twentieth century.  Under Criterion A in the areas of Commerce, Religion, and Entertainment/Recreation, the building served the community in two capacities: as a hotel/boarding house until 1924, and as a Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints’ (LDS Church) meetinghouse and social center between 1924 and 1959.  The period of historic significance is 1903 to 1959, beginning with the construction of the building and ending when the Ophir Branch of the LDS Church was dissolved in 1959.  The property meets Criteria Consideration A as a religious-use building formerly owned by the LDS Church, but which derives its significance primarily from its original use as a hotel and its importance use as a meeting hall for the town’s residents during the boom town’s decline.

Within the area of Commerce, the Reddick Hotel is particularly notable as one of the few extant commercial buildings that represent the town’s efforts to transform from a boom-&-bust mining camp to a more stable community.  It is the only frame commercial building, other than the Ophir Town Hall, that retains its historic integrity.  The building was originally built as a hotel following the peak of mining activity in the canyon.  In 1916, the hotel became the site of one of Ophir’s most tragic events, the murder of Mary Reddick by her husband, and his subsequent suicide.  Although the interior retains more integrity from the meetinghouse period, local residents still refer to the building as the Reddick Hotel based on the exterior integrity and its strong association with the murder/suicide.

Unlike many of Utah’s mining towns of the early 1870s, particularly those in narrow canyons, Ophir was never completely abandoned.  The Reddick Hotel remained a boarding house through the early 1920s.  It was obtained by the LDS Church in 1924 and converted to a meetinghouse.  The property is significant in the areas of Religion and Entertainment/Recreation as the only dedicated building used as a church meetinghouse for any congregation.  It also provided a place for civic meetings and social/recreational events for the geographically isolated community.  The Ophir Branch of the LDS Church was formed in 1921 and dissolved in 1959 when the population of Ophir declined dramatically.  In 1970, it became a shop building owned by former Mayor Howard Hawkins and remains in the Hawkins family today.  The Reddick Hotel/Ophir LDS Meetinghouse is a contributing historic resource in the community of Ophir, Utah.

Read the full nomination:
ut_tooele-county_reddick-hotel-lds-meetinghouse


Warehouse District (Boundary Increase)
Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County

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Statement of Significance: 
The original Warehouse District was listed on the National Register in 1982 and included 16 buildings with a somewhat undefined period of significance from approximately 1890 to 1927. The original district boundary encompasses a roughly 1-block area straddling 200 South between 300 West and 400 West in Salt Lake City.  The original Warehouse District was described as being significant as “a well-preserved cluster of warehouse buildings that convey a sense of the impact of the coming of the railroad in Salt Lake City.” This statement effectively indicates the district was considered eligible for listing under Criteria A and C.  The additional information provided here for the boundary increase more clearly defines the areas of significance applicable to both the existing district and the additional properties within the expanded boundary. It also expands the period of significance for the expanded district from the original ca. 1890 to 1927 to 1869 to 1966.

The Warehouse District Boundary Increase is also significant under Criteria A and C. As noted, the period of significance for the expanded district is extended from the relatively narrow period represented by the original district and begins in 1869 with the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad, which greatly influenced the development of the area, and ends in 1966, the current end of the historical period (i.e., 50 years ago). Under Criterion A, the district has local significance in the areas of Social History, Commerce, Industry, and Transportation for the direct association of the district with the railroad industry and the commercial and residential development it spurred along the west side of Salt Lake City.  With the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad came an immediate proliferation of other mainlines and spur lines to connect the communities and industrial centers of the West to the rest of the nation. Two of these mainline systems—the Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad (D&RGW) and the Union Pacific Railroad (UPRR)—extended through what was, at the time, the western fringe of Salt Lake City. Shortly after, the D&RGW established regional maintenance shops and a rail yard for their Utah subdivision in the west Salt Lake City area, in the heart of the Warehouse District Boundary Increase. The UPRR also established a rail yard just beyond the northern edge of the district. The railroad mainlines are included in the district as contributing archaeological resources. The presence of the shops and yards drew many immigrants to the area in search of work. A large number of these immigrants had countries of origin that were quite different from the predominant northern European ancestry of Salt Lake City’s earliest settlers. The ethnic minority immigrants settled on the west side of the city, near the rail yard and maintenance shops in which they labored. The neighborhood became one of the largest and most diverse ethnic enclaves in the city. A web of railroad spur lines appeared in the area as commercial interests took advantage of the proximity of the mainline railroads to establish manufacturing and distribution (warehouse) sites with easy and immediate rail access to both regional and national markets. Although the manner of transporting industrial goods and freight shifted in the years after World War II and the rise of long-haul trucking, manufacturing and distribution remained a major land use in the district. Railroading also retains its influence on the development and use of the area with a commuter rail hub and rail yards still present within the district.

The district is also significant at the local level under Criterion C for its architectural integrity and its reflection of the four major periods of development influenced by the railroad industry and its role in the economy of the area. The building stock of the area represents both high-style and vernacular architectural trends in Utah and stands as a testament to the economic differences of the commercial interests that could invest in architect-designed buildings and the laborers who could not. It also reflects the largely utilitarian nature of the freight and distribution industry, where investments in ornate architecture yielded to functional efficiency. As a collective body of architectural resources, the buildings of the district illustrate the shifting focus of the area from an initially balanced distribution of both residential and commercial/industrial properties to one of predominantly commercial/industrial uses. Small, isolated pockets of historical dwellings are scattered throughout the central and northern portions of the district, while the southern portion of the district is the only area to have retained its historical dwellings in any large concentration. Additionally, the relatively large number of historical warehouse buildings compared to other areas of Salt Lake City lends a unique composition to the architectural make-up of the district and lend the district its name.

Read the full nomination:
UT_Salt Lake County_Warehouse District Expansion Final


Roberta Sugden House
Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County County

UT_Salt Lake County_Roberta Sugden House_0001

Statement of Significance: 
The Roberta Sugden House, constructed in 1955, is a one-story International Style modern residence located in Salt Lake City, Utah. The building has statewide significance under Criterion C in the area of Architecture for its unique and distinctive design and association with prominent Salt Lake City architect John W. Sugden III. The property also contains a John Sugden designed studio/apartment built in 1964 and occupied by John Sugden between 1964 and 1969. The period of significance dates from construction in 1955 through 1969, when Roberta Sugden sold the house and John Sugden moved from the studio. The Roberta Sugden House is an excellent and rare example of a mid-century International Style residential design in Utah. The Sugden House has the horizontality, minimal and visible structural components, glazed curtain walls and modern interior elements that closely reflect the influence of the International Style of architecture and found in architect Philip Johnson’s Glass House (1949) and Mies van der Rohe’s Farnsworth House (1951).

John Sugden designed eighteen residences during his architectural career. He designed only two residences which so strongly reflect the Miesian ideal of simplified forms and transparent boundaries: the Sugden House and the Dev Jennings House. The Sugden House is one of his earliest and is the best known example of residential modernist expression of structure and space. John Sugden was one of only a few Salt Lake City architects who designed International Style-influenced buildings. He was one of three Salt Lake architects who practiced modern International Style residential architecture, and was the architect whose residences most closely reflected Miesian-influenced International Style residential design.

Architect John Sugden III was born in 1922 in Chicago, Illinois. John grew up in Salt Lake City, Utah, served in World War II, attended architecture school and worked for prominent architect Mies van der Rohe and city and regional planner Ludwig Hilberseimer. John graduated with B.S. and M.S. degrees in Architecture from Illinois Institute of Technology in 1950 and 1952 respectively.  In 1952, John Sugden returned to Salt Lake City and began practicing and later teaching architecture. John Sugden’s residential and commercial architecture was almost exclusively based on the International Modern Style and the architecture of Mies van der Rohe.  John Sugden has been identified as one of the founding “Salt Lake Seven” modern architects by Salt Lake Modern and the Utah Heritage

Read the full nomination:
UT_Salt Lake County_Roberta Sugden House


Smoot Dairy Farmhouse
Centerville, Davis County

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Statement of Significance: 
The Smoot Dairy Farmhouse, constructed in 1936, is a 1½-story Tudor Revival-style brick cottage.  The farmhouse is locally significant under Criterion A in the area of Agriculture as the only surviving building associated with the Smoot Dairy.  Although the period of historic significance begins in 1936, when the house was constructed, the history of the property begins in 1935, when the Smoot family obtained the land and transferred a herd of dairy cows to Centerville.  Until a devastating fire in 1963, the Smoot Dairy was one of the largest privately owned dairy farms in Utah.  The farmhouse, which also served as an office, was one of only two buildings to survive the fire.  Within a year of the fire, with aid from their Centerville neighbors, the Smoot family built the most modern dairy operation in the state.  The period of significance ends in 1964 with the phoenix-like rise of the Smoot Dairy.  During the historic period, the Smoot Dairy sold milk on site and made deliveries to an estimated 2,000 households in Centerville and the surrounding communities.  The Smoot Dairy provided dairy products to numerous restaurants and hotels in the larger cities of the Wasatch Front, and was the regional dairy provider for United Airlines for thirty-two years.  In addition, Edgar Smoot raised prize-winning pure-bred Jersey stock on loan to breeders throughout the western United States.  The farmhouse is the only extant historic resource representing the Smoot family’s important contributions to the Centerville community.

The Smoot Dairy Farmhouse is also locally significant under Criterion C in the area of Architecture as a rare example of an English Tudor Revival-style period cottage with a dual purpose of residence and office associated with the Smoot Dairy.  The property meets the registration requirements of the Multiple Property Submission, Historic Resources of Centerville, Davis County, Utah, under the associated historic context “City Development, 1911-1940s.”  The Smoot Dairy Farmhouse represents a small number of English-style period cottages built in Centerville during the style’s height of popularity for rural farmhouses in the mid-1930s.  The Smoot Farmhouse has many of the character defining features of a Tudor Revival-style cottage: asymmetrical façade, steeply pitched roof, casement windows, and polychromatic brick.  However, the property primarily derives its architectural significance in its design as the public face of the Smoot Dairy property, with a wide façade along the main transportation route and a unique walkout basement that connected the house-office to the working dairy.  The Smoot Dairy Farmhouse has good historic integrity and is a contributing resource in its north Centerville neighborhood.

Read the full nomination:
UT_Davis County_Smoot Dairy Farmhouse


 


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