Tag Archives: utah

Utah History Day Registration

REGISTRATION IS NOW OPEN

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT CONTEST. Scroll down, looking carefully at the options below. You must select the registration link for the regional contest nearest to where you live.

2. TEACHERS complete one Teacher Registration form per school.

3. STUDENTS complete one Student Registration form per entry. This means that a group project should only be registered one time, and all members of the group must be included in that registration.

4. Remember, registration is free for History Day contests in Utah.

REGIONAL CONTESTS

Cache Regional (Cache & Box Elder Counties):

Castle Country Regional (Carbon & Emery Counties):

Central Utah Regional (Sanpete County);

Duchesne-Uintah Regional (Duchesne & Uintah Counties):

Salt Lake Regional (Salt Lake & Summit Counties):

San Juan Regional (San Juan County):

South-Central Regional (Beaver & Iron Counties):

Utah Valley Regional (Utah County):

Washington County Regional:

Weber Regional (Weber & Davis Counties)**

Davis County School District:

Ogden School District: 

Questions?  

Contact us at UtahHistoryDay@gmail.com. We will be happy to assist you!

Registration Tips

  • Registration closing dates vary. Be sure you register before the deadline for your contest.
  • Website and Historical Paper entries are due before the competition. If you are competing in either of those categories, pay attention to those deadlines. Look them up HERE.
  • If you are not sure which contest serves you, please contact us: utahhistoryday@gmail.com

Instructions for Website Students

  • You need to provide the Weebly URL for your website during registration. It should look like this: https://12345678.nhd.weebly.com.
  • If your URL has words instead of numbers, you’ll need to convert it to NHD Weebly before you register. It’s simple: Go to nhd.weebly.com  and login using your Weebly username and password. Click “Convert” and write down your new URL. If you experience issues converting your website contact nhdsupport@weebly.com.
  • Websites will lock for judging on the date specified for your contest. You will not be able to access your site during the judging period.
  • Websites will unlock after the competition, allowing you time to make revisions before the next competition.

Instructions for Historical Paper Students

  • Judges will read Historical Papers before the day of the contest.
  • You will need to mail four (4) hard copies of your paper to your contest coordinator by the due date listed for your contest in the Registration Schedule.  Please email your regional coordinator if you need their mailing address.
  • Then, plan to attend your regional competition prepared for a 5-minute judges interview about your project.

 

Utah History Day Annual Theme

 397-096_2017_NHD_Theme_Logo_web_FNL-180x180

* Download the 2017 Theme Summary (6 pages, a good handout)
* Download the 2017 Theme Book (expanded content includes lesson plans, classroom activities, and more)
* Go to Topic Ideas

Theme Summary:

For National History Day students, the 2016-2017 academic year will be filled with research related to the theme Taking a Stand in History. The theme is broad to encourage participants to delve into history, whether it be a topic from the ancient world or the history of their own city. Students need to begin research with secondary sources to gain a broader context, then progress to finding primary sources, and finally make an argument about the effects of a topic in history.

What does it mean to take a stand? To take a stand, one must take a firm position on an issue. Historically, people have taken a stand in support of an issue, such as the demonstrators in Tiananmen Square who protested for greater freedom in China. Sometimes taking a stand involves opposing the status quo—for example, Martin Luther’s act of nailing his Ninety-Five Theses to the door of the All Saints’ Church in Wittenberg, Germany. Taking a stand could even involve fighting against a powerful movement, such as Queen Liliuokalani’s fight against annexation to maintain Hawaiian independence. These examples show well-known individuals taking a stand. How did these people defend their position?

When looking at different individuals and groups who took a stand, there are examples of those who used force, words, and economic power to make their voices heard. These people are remembered because they had an impact on history and inspired others to follow them. Remember that there is a difference between opposition and truly taking a stand. What do you think has to happen to move from opposition to taking a stand?

Can a group of people take a stand? Yes. Think back to how the Indian National Congress protested to end British Control of India. Or look even further into the past at the Magna Carta, considered one of the world’s most important documents. It would never have been written if it were not for a group of rebellious English barons who took a stand against an all-powerful King John in 1215. How did American colonists, many of them women, take a stand against King George III? In the more recent past, numerous nations came together to stand up for the rights of individuals after World War II. Why and how did the United Nations agree to the Declaration of Human Rights in 1948? What can be accomplished when nations come together to stand up for individual rights? Perhaps you could explore these questions and more by writing a paper.

Grassroots movements can become something more through the dedication of followers. Think of the Temperance Movement during the Progressive Era. Although the movement for temperance began much earlier, the Progressive Era sparked a revival that led to the 18th Amendment and a 13-year prohibition of alcohol. Why was this issue brought back into the spotlight by the Progressive Era?

Why was this movement successful? As historians, you must look at the lasting legacy of the actions of individuals and groups. What 5 Taking a Stand in History happened because of their stand? What changes occurred in the short-term? How about the long-term? Did they leave the world, their country, or their town better or worse?

Many times those who take a stand emerge as great historical leaders. George Washington was a gifted leader who influenced the lives of many. He took numerous stands throughout his military and political career. Yes, he led the Continental Army in the American Revolution, but Washington also took a stand against disease by inoculating his army against smallpox during a time when many questioned the validity of this procedure. Why did he decide to go against the mindset of the time? How do you think this has shaped his lasting legacy?

Often those who take a stand have to overcome opposition. Like the soldiers of George Washington’s time, many Americans feared Jonas Salk’s polio vaccine in the twentieth century. How did Salk seek to prove the validity of his medicine?

How did his stand help shape the future of medicine? Times of crisis and war often lead to conflicts between the rights of the people and those of the government. Consider the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798, the suspension of the writ of habeus corpus during the U.S. Civil War, or the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II. Often these situations led to court cases where an individual or group challenged the right of the government to restrict liberties. There are many case studies of people standing up to protect liberties. John Peter Zenger, Lucy Stone, William Lloyd Garrison, Eugene V. Debs, and John Lewis all took stands. How does the judicial process provide an avenue to take a stand?

One of the most visible ways to take a stand is related to military action. Alexander the Great, Charlemagne, Joan of Arc, Napoleon I, and Douglas MacArthur are just a few who have led armies in taking a stand. In contrast, you might consider why an individual might take a stand against military action. For example, how did Siegfried Sassoon, a British soldier in World War I, use poetry to take a stand? What consequences did he face as a result?

Taking a stand does not necessarily need to involve military force or a political enemy. In the late 1800s, a group of French artists rebelled against the Salons, a popular venue for artists to display their work. They felt rejected and unwanted so they put on their own shows and were later known as the Impressionists. What legacy did these artists leave? Do you think the Impressionist Movement inspired later artists and other movements? You might decide to tackle those questions by creating an exhibit or a documentary.

Sometimes the best way to take a stand is to walk away. Russia has always had a wonderful reverence for the ballet world, but the ballet dancers of the Soviet Era felt limited by government policies that restricted creative expression. As a result, some dancers, including Rudolf Nureyev and Mikhail Baryshnikov, defected to other countries. How did their stand influence artist expression? How were they affected as individuals? Perhaps you want to explore this topic through a performance.

Many women have taken a powerful stand in history. Consider Queen Elizabeth I’s stand against marriage or Catherine the Great’s efforts to bring Enlightenment ideas to the Russian Empire. Alice Paul took a stand to push the women’s suffrage movement into the national spotlight in the early twentieth century. How was she able to garner so much attention? How did Eleanor Roosevelt respond when the Daughters of the American Revolution refused to let Marian Anderson perform in their concert hall? Can you think of other examples of women taking a stand throughout history?

What happens when taking a stand fails to result in an immediate change? Often many people and groups must take a stand to bring change to a society. Any movement for social and political change can require years. Ending slavery, establishing child labor laws, and fighting against Jim Crow segregation laws and prohibition took many attempts at change. What part has the media played in such instances? How can a failure later become a success?

Sometimes failure is temporary. In 1892, the People’s Party, or Populist Party, articulated its goals in a document known as the Omaha Platform. While none of its goals (a graduated income tax, direct election of senators) were achieved in 1892, many of the ideas were carried on by Progressive Reformers and enacted in the next 50 years. Looking back through history, are there similar examples where a group might have failed initially?

What happens when someone fails to take a stand? Diplomatic history includes many examples of nations that refused to get involved in events outside their borders. Nations must face challenging decisions of when to intervene in another country’s affairs, and when to be isolationists and stay out.

When deciding on a topic for your NHD project, it is helpful to think outside the box. One way to find such a topic is to look at a well-known historical event, such as the Boston Tea Party, and dig a little deeper. Most of us know about the Boston Tea Party and that the Sons of Liberty were a part of its planning and execution, but have you heard of Ebenezer Stevens? How did he play a role in the rebellion? What were the consequences of his actions? Perhaps you might want to explore this topic by creating a website.

Another way to find a new spin on an old topic is to look to your own backyard. Many of us know that Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King, Jr. played significant roles in the civil rights movement, but are there individuals from your hometown who played a role? How do you think the small town movements influenced these movements at a national level? By digging beneath the surface of many famous historical events, researchers can find a treasure trove of fascinating stories of people and groups who took a stand in history.

Using these questions, students can choose a topic that interests them and has a strong connection to the Taking a Stand in History theme. Happy researching!

 

Next Year’s Theme:  Conflict and Compromise in History

Welcome!

What is Utah History Day?

Utah History Day is Utah’s official National History Day affiliate. Formerly called Utah History Fair, this program has operated continuously in Utah since 1980.  Last year, more than 5,000 Utah students in 4th through 12th grade participated in History Day, learning how to conduct real historical research and then create a final project that showcases their work.  Students present their projects in a series of contests beginning at the school or district level and advancing through regional and state competitions. Utah’s top entries qualify to compete at the National History Day competition in Washington, D.C., each June.

Why History Day?

UHD Home Page PictureHistory Day brings history to life for students as they discover the past by choosing a topic from local, national, or world history, conducting their own research, and drawing reasoned conclusions based on historical evidence. Students who participate in History Day do much more than memorize facts from a textbook, they develop their abilities in reading, writing, critical thinking, and creative presentation. History Day builds a host of college and career ready skills while inspiring students to strive for excellence. 

Learn more about students’ great experiences!   

Utah History Day is operated by the Utah Division of State History at the historic Rio Grande Depot in Salt Lake City, home of the State History Research Center and Collections, the Utah State Historical Society, the Utah Historical Quarterly, and the Utah State Archives. We appreciate your excitement, commitment, and passion for this program! 

UHD Get Started Final 2spaceContact Us: 
Utah History Day
Division of State History
300 S. Rio Grande Street
Salt Lake City, UT 84101
Phone: 801.245.7253
Email: UtahHistoryDay@gmail.com

Thank You to our Statewide Partners!

UHD slcc_logo_color_original UHD- Civic and Character education UHD- Utah Humanities Logo
UHD- Utah State Logo.svg UHD- UVU Logo UHD- Weber State Logo
UHDusu eastern fixed UHD- Snow College

 

National History Day (NHD) is a non-profit education organization that offers year-long academic programs to students around the world. Students enter research-based projects into contests at the local and affiliate levels, where the top student projects have the opportunity to advance to the National Contest at the University of Maryland at College Park.UHD- NHD Logo

Utah History Day in the News!

Utah Students Excel at National History Day Competition, KCSG Television, 17 June 2016. http://www.kcsg.com/view/full_story/27211225/article-Utah-students-excel-at-National-History-Day-competition?

St. George Students Head to National History Competition, St. George Daily Spectrum, 26 May, 2016.  http://www.thespectrum.com/story/news/2016/05/26/st-george-students-head-national-history-competition/84945114/

Utah History Day Showcases student research and presentations, The Pyramid, 14 April, 2016
http://www.heraldextra.com/sanpete-county/news/utah-history-day-showcases-student-research-and-presentations/article_b8c90892-1b8b-5f17-a0dc-b0dea2c6dd63.html

Seven Local Historians Qualify for National Competition, ETV10 News, 26 April, 2016
http://etv10news.com/seven-local-historians-qualify-for-national-competition/ Eight

Carbon High Students Compete at National History Fair, ETV10 News, July 21, 2015
http://etv10news.com/eight-carbon-high-students-compete-at-national-history-fair/

Two Catholic Students Advance to National History Day 
Competition, Intermountain Catholic, May 8, 2015
http://www.icatholic.org/article/two-catholic-students-advance-to-national-history-day-0117806

Layton Students Headed to National History Fair, Ogden Standard Examiner, May 6, 2015
http://www.standard.net/Education/2015/05/08/Students-Headed-to-National-History-Fair.html

Legacy and Leadership at History Fair, 
San Juan Record, March 25, 2015
http://www.sjrnews.com/view/full_story/26539375/article-Legacy-and-Leadership-at-History-Fair?instance=home_news_1st_right

Carbon, Emery, and Grand Students Compete in History Day Fair, ETV10 News, March 19, 2015
http://etv10news.com/carbon-emery-and-grand-students-compete-in-history-day-fair/

Students Ponder Leadership and Legacy in History at Utah History Day Contest in Price, ETV10 News, March 6, 2015
http://etv10news.com/students-ponder-leadership-and-legacy-in-history-at-utah-history-day-contest-in-price/

Local Students Learn, Compete, and Explore at National History Day, ETV10 News, July 1, 2014
http://etv10news.com/local-students-learn-compete-and-explore-at-national-history-day/

Student Competition Takes Historical Look at Rights and Responsibilities, Deseret News, April 24, 2014
http://www.deseretnews.com/article/865601664/Student-competition-takes-historical-look-at-rights-and-responsibilities.html?pg=2

Kaysville Sixth Graders Headed to National History Contest,
Standard Examiner, May 7, 2014
http://www.standard.net/Education/2014/05/12/Kaysville-sixth-graders-headed-to-national-history-contest.html

Utah Students Do Well at National History Day, June 20, 2013
http://www.usu.edu/ust/index.cfm?article=52483

Olivia Baird Selected to Participate in US Freedom Pavilion Grand Opening
Deseret News, March 5, 2013
http://www.deseretnews.com/article/865574930/Orem-ninth-grader-Olivia-Baird-chosen-to-participate-in-US-Freedom-Pavilion-grand-opening.html

Utah History Day on KBYU Eleven Community Connection
Utah History Day is honored to appear on KBYU Eleven Community Connection.  Click here to see the interview.

Utah History Fair Receives Official Citation from the Utah State Legislature
March 8, 2012
http://www.usu.edu/ust/index.cfm?article=50876

Hannah  Anderson takes 1st at the Kenneth E. Behring NHD Contest,  2011
http://news.hjnews.com/news/article_06710dca-9af2-11e0-b04e-001cc4c002e0.html

Mayra Payne takes 9th at the Kenneth E. Behring NHD 
Contest, 2011

http://www.heraldextra.com/news/local/north/alpine/article_8fd85cc0-0cc0-53bf-999c-30281ff4101b.html

Helper Junior High students participate in the Kenneth E. Behring NHD Contest, 2011
http://www.sunad.com/index.php?tier=1&article_id=22152

Midvale Middle School prepares for the Kenneth E. Behring NHD Contest, 2011
http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/news/51933681-78/competition-courtney-eighth-hansen.html.csp#disqus_thread

History of the Utah History Fair via the Utah Humanities Council’s Beehive Archive, 2011
http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/founding-utah-history-fair/id307267067?i=89201907

Great work Natalie Howe and Sadie Topham, 2010
http://www.usu.edu/ust/index.cfm?article=47847

The Utah History Fair and Nicholas Demas receives the Utah Humanities Council’s Human Ties Award, 2010
http://www.usu.edu/ust/index.cfm?article=47108

Utah History Day Results

2016 National Contest Results 

UHD Nationals 2015 116

  • 5th place Junior Group Website: Daniel Nelson and Spencer Standing (Lakeridge Junior High School, Orem), for their project “Helen Foster Snow: American Journalist in the Chinese Revolution” – Utah Outstanding Junior Entry
  • 8th place Senior Individual Exhibit: Maren Burgess (Lone Peak High School, Highland), for her project “George Catlin’s Native American Encounters: A Gift of Artistic Preservation” – Utah Outstanding Junior Entry
  • 9th place Junior Paper: Taylor Fang (Mount Logan Middle School, Logan), for her project “When Portugal Ruled the Seas: How Exploration Led to Encounters and Exchanges with Brazil”

2016 Patricia Behring Utah History Day Teachers of the Year

  • Kim Perry, Clayton Middle School (SLC)
  • Tacy Hymas, Mount Logan Middle School (Logan)

2016 State Contest Results

PAST YEARS 

National Contest

State Contest

Regional Contests

2016 Regional Results 

  • Utah Valley Regional Contest Results, March 10 – click here
  • Cache Regional Contest Results, March 8 – click here
  • Duchesne Regional Contest Results, March 25 – click here
  • East (Carbon) Regional Contest Results, March 14 – click here
  • San Juan Regional Contest Results, March 24 – click here
  • Salt Lake Valley Regional Contest Results, March 16 – click here
  • Central Utah Regional Contest Results,  March 18 – click here
  • South-Central Regional Contest Results, March 18 – click here
  • Weber Regional Contest Results, March 21 – click here
  • Washington County Regional Contest Results,  March 19 – click here

2015 Regional Results

  • Utah Valley Regional Contest Results, March 6 – click here
  • Cache Regional Contest Results, March 10 – click here
  • Duchesne Regional Contest Results, March 12 – click here
  • Castle Country (Carbon and Emery) Regional Contest Results, March 14 – click here
  • San Juan Regional Contest Results, March 17 – click here
  • Salt Lake Valley Regional Contest Results, March 18 – click here
  • Central Utah Regional Contest Results,  Match 19 – click here
  • Weber Regional Contest Results, March 20 – click here
  • Washington County Regional Contest Results,  March 21 – click here

Utah History Day Judges

Judges Volunteer Here!

Do you love history? Are you great with kids? Sign up here to judge at a History Day competition this spring!

History Day gets young people excited about learning history by giving them the chance to be junior historians. They do extensive research, analyze real historical sources, and draw conclusions based upon what they find. Their topics may be drawn from local, regional, national, or world history. They present their work in one of five formats:   

Exhibits  ~  Documentaries   ~   Performances  ~  Websites  ~  Papers

History Day truly makes a difference for kids, and they gain skills they will use for years to come. But we can’t do it without hundreds of committed volunteers who give of their time to evaluate projects and provide meaningful, thoughtful feedback to each student.

Judges training and lunch will be provided.

2017 Contests

  • LOGAN – March 7, Utah State University, Taggart Student Center
  • OGDEN – March 24, Weber State University, Shepherd Student Union
  • SALT LAKE – March 17, Salt Lake Community College, Karen Gail Miller Conference Center (9750 South 300 West)
  • OREM – March 20, Utah Valley University, Sorensen Student Center
  • UINTAH BASIN – Roosevelt/Vernal
  • PRICE – March 4, Carbon High School
  • EPHRAIM – March 24, Snow College, Greenwood Student Center
  • BEAVER – March 24, Belknap Elementary
  • ST. GEORGE – March 25, Lava Ridge Intermediate School
  • SAN JUAN – February 22, Utah State University, Blanding Arts & Events Center
  • STATE CONTEST – April 29, Hillcrest Junior High School (126 East 5300 South, Murray)

Judging Hours*  

  • 8:00-1:30 first round only
  • 8:00-3:30 both rounds

* Actual times will vary depending upon the size of the competition.

UHD - Sign Up!

A State Is Born

Statehood celebration, January 4, 1896

Statehood celebration, January 4, 1896

Richard D. Poll
Beehive History 21

It was January 4, 1896. On joining the Union, Utah was already more populous than five of her sister states. Of her people, 8 out of 10 were American-born and nearly 9 out of 10 were Latter-day Saints. Apart from approximately 3,000 Indians, mostly on reservations, the 571 blacks and 768 Chinese counted in the 1895 territorial census were the largest racial minorities. Perhaps 2,000 polygamous families remained, but a considerable number of single men in the mining communities produced a small male preponderance in the total population of 247,324.

08 Statehood_Celebration_1896_p4 Small

Statehood celebration, 1986

Few of Utah's citizens lived in cities, although the inaugural festivities demonstrated that the capital's 50,000 people enjoyed many of the amenities of urban life. A maze of power and telephone lines in the downtown area; a university and eight academies; a limited distribution of natural and manufactured gas; 68 miles of street railway; three daily newspapers; three theaters and two businessmen's clubs; a just-finished gravity sewage system with seven miles of mains; and a three-year-old fun spot, Saltair, perched on piles in Great Salt Lake were further evidences of the march of progress. But progress marched on unpaved streets if it moved very far from the heart of town.

Twenty-seven years as a railroad center had brought Ogden 15,000 inhabitants, 10 miles of street railway, two academies, one of the first hydro-electric projects in the United States (nearing completion), and some of the most eventful Saturday nights to be found outside the mining camps. Provo, with only 400 students in its Brigham Young Academy and the Geneva steel plant not even dreamed of, was a quiet county seat with 6,000 people; its street railway was only six miles long, but it was steam powered. Logan, with 5,000 inhabitants, was beginning to orient its life around its eight-year-old land-grant college. As for the rest, the towns of Utah were either unpaved and unexciting farming centers, whose chief buildings revealed the industriousness and occasionally the artistic imagination of the pioneers, or unpaved and uninhibited mining camps, which might be gone tomorrow but were notoriously here today.

Farming and mining were the main businesses of the new state, and neither was doing well as 1896 began. The 30-year decline in prices which brought Populism to the farm belt had one more year to go, and the Panic of 1893 had added mining distress to agricultural depression. Property values aggregated approximately $100 million in the state, but if absentee-owned railroads and mines were deducted, the accumulation of a half-century's effort averaged out at less than $300 per capita and at least half of that was in real estate. For Utah the affluent society was still two world wars in the future.

Approximately one-third of Utah's total employed population was engaged in agriculture. All but 2,232 of the 19,916 farms were declared by Governor Wells to be free from encumbrances, but with wheat 46¢, corn 58¢, potatoes 32¢, and apples 40¢ per bushel; sugar beets and lucerne about $4.00 per ton; wool 7¢ per pound; and sheep $1.50 per head, few mortgages were being lifted during the winter of 1895--96. The New Year edition of the Tribune estimated that the value of all farm crops had declined by almost one-third between 1890 and 1894, and there had been little recovery since.

Reminiscent of the pioneer quest for self-sufficiency are 40,000 pounds of cotton and almost 3,000 gallons of wine produced in the Virgin River country in 1895 and 10,000 pounds of silk cocoons reported a year later. Recalling another dream, which failed in the 1850s but was now becoming a reality under LDS church sponsorship, are the 40,000 tons of beets processed by the Utah Sugar Company in the year before statehood. Although dry farming had begun in the 1870s, 89 percent of the 467,162 cultivated acres (1894) was irrigated by methods largely developed in the founding generation. And although the church was moving toward the abolition of tithing in kind, some produce still moved into the market through the tithing offices and scrip-using cooperatives like the cotton factory at Washington and the Provo Woolen Mills. Mormon Utah's bumper crop was children, and the declining support capability of agriculture was beginning to produce that export of young manpower which would characterize the first four decades of the twentieth century.

The state of mining in Utah can be inferred from Governor Wells's appeal for silver legislation and the endorsement of bimetallism by both Republican and Democratic platforms in the pre-statehood election. At approximately 65¢ per ounce, Utah's mines had produced only $4,854,300 in silver in 1895, and that largely from a few spectacular enterprises like the Centennial-Eureka and Bullion-Beck in the Tintic District and the Silver King and almost exhausted Ontario at Park City. The total value of nonferrous metal production for the year was $8,464,500, down almost $4 million from 1890. Gold discoveries in the Camp Floyd District of the Oquirrh Mountains and the resulting rush which led boomers to speak of a "New Johannesburg" when they incorporated Mercur two weeks before Inauguration Day did not disguise the facts that many mines were closed in 1895 and 1896 and that extensive unemployment was avoided largely because of the disposition of miners to move on when jobs disappeared.

Too insubstantial yet to cast a shadow, the mining undertaking with the greatest long-run potential was going on at Bingham. While the operating mines there were still concentrating largely on precious metals and the townspeople were rebuilding from a series of disastrous fires, "Colonel" Enos A. Wall and Samuel Newhouse were piecing together the claims which would become the foundation for Utah's greatest single productive enterprise, the Bingham copper mines. Except for Carbon County and Emery County coal, Great Salt Lake salt, and a very limited production of Gilsonite, sulfur, and building materials, the other nonmetallic minerals which would eventually justify Lincoln's description of Utah as "the nation's treasure house" were either undiscovered or unappreciated.

The railroad network in January 1896 was substantially what it had become in 1880 with the completion of the Utah Southern Railroad extension to Milford and Frisco and the Horn Silver Mine. The Union Pacific now owned 543, the Denver and Rio Grande 485, and the Central Pacific 157 of Utah's 1,225 miles of standard-gauge road; 150 miles of narrow-gauge track wound into the mines. Local stage lines still served parts of the state, and a gun battle between a sheriff's posse and two young horse thieves in City Creek Canyon in August 1895 was additional evidence that the frontier had not yet fully passed. Telephone poles had started sprouting in 1879, and communities from Logan to Eureka were linked together by the Rocky Mountain Bell Telephone Company, but there were yet no rural phones. Western Union, which joined Utah with the two coasts, would wait four more years before buying the Deseret Telegraph Company, the locally built enterprise which had spread the warning through southern Utah when the United States marshals were coming during the days of the "Underground." Salt Lake City had enjoyed house-to-house mail delivery for a decade, but such novelties as airmail and zip codes were hardly in the science fiction.

Other sectors of the Utah economy did not escape the impact of the nationwide depression. On the contrary, hard times accelerated certain profoundly significant changes in the quality and direction of Utah's business enterprises.

Like agriculture during the territorial period, industry, with the exception of mining and transcontinental transportation, had been largely in Mormon hands and devoted to the self-sufficiency of what Leonard Arrington has aptly titled "The Great Basin Kingdom." The larger cooperative projects, like iron, sugar, and cotton, had fallen short of expectations, and most of the local manufacturing was in shops employing only a few hands. The 880 industrial concerns reported in 1894 had an average capital investment of about $6,000, product value averaging approximately $8,000, and a total employment of 5,054 people; the Provo Woolen Mills, with 150 employees, was the largest remaining example of pioneer industry.

Unlike agriculture, industry was reflecting the revolution in economic policy taking place in the LDS church as that organization struggled out from under a great burden of debt accumulated during the Edmunds-Tucker period and came to terms with late nineteenth-century American capitalism. The concern for the material development of the region remained, but the isolationist goals and communitarian methods largely disappeared. Numbers of existing church concerns, like the Salt Lake Street Railroad Company, Salt Lake City Gas Company, and Provo Woolen Mills, were sold or secularized. And the new church-supported projects recruited outside capital and functioned in conventional, even conservative, business fashion. The Utah Sugar and Inland Crystal Salt companies, the hydro-electric development on the Weber River and the electric and gas utilities in northern Utah, the Saltair resort and the railroad serving it were all products of this expedient reinterpretation of the strictures against mingling Zion and Babylon. In the new state of Utah, laissez faire was a nonsectarian slogan, with nonsectarian reservations for the protective tariff, of course.

At the counters and in the counting houses of Salt Lake and Ogden some of the earliest overtures toward Mormon-gentile peace had been made, and by 1896 the Chambers of Commerce and the 40 Utah banks had replaced the Schools of the Prophet and Zion's Board of Trade as centers of business planning. Like the manufactories, most commercial establishments were small; the 1,974 stores reported in 1894 employed 5,023 people and had an average capital investment of over $7,000 and average sales of $17,000.

Many Mormon-owned stores throughout the state still called themselves "Co-ops" and did much of their purchasing through ZCMI Wholesale, but the secularizing process already referred to in industry was also taking place in trade. The reincorporation of Zion's Cooperative Mercantile Institution as a million-dollar corporation on September 30, 1895, is a notable example. Originally founded in 1868 as the cornerstone for a self-contained Mormon commercial structure, it has been considerably more profitable than its industrial counterparts; on an initial investment of $220,000, not all cash, and sales of $76,352,686, it had generated $1,990,943.55 in cash dividends and $414,944.77 in stock dividends in 25 years. In 1891 it had discontinued tithing its earnings and opened stock ownership to non-Mormons, and the new company functioned substantially as its gentile competitors in the merchandise field.

"All Our Underwear at One-Third Off" must have drawn crowds to Siegel Clothing Company, where the finest full length union suits in "Switz Conde" cost $2.75 but "natural mixtures" could be had for $.60. Auerbach's was clearing ladies' tailor-made suits at $3.85, foot warmers at $.50 a pair, children's shoes at $1.00 a pair, and ostrich feather boas from $1.75 to $10.00. Lipman, Nadel and Son offered "Your choice of any suit or overcoat in the store for $10.00," while ZCMI was featuring the Charter Oak ranges and stoves in which were baked many of the pies and cakes that our grandmothers used to make. There were no supermarkets, and the corner grocers usually relied on handbills rather than newspapers to call attention to their 10¢ beefsteak, 15¢ butter, and assorted penny candy.

It should be remembered, however, that those were the days when $2.00 was a good day's wages, and the youngsters in a workingman's family did not always have pennies to spend on luxuries.

Unlike their parents, children could go to school without tuition, the free school system having been established on a territory-wide basis in 1890. Almost 90 percent of the 74,551 school-age children attended at some time in 1895, and the pattern of available education was changing rapidly from year to year. The non-Mormon denominational elementary and secondary schools, which had numbered more than 50 and rendered invaluable service in upgrading the quality of the territorial educational effort, were now suspending operations, leaving only a handful of secondary schools and colleges like Rowland Hall, St. Mary's of the Wasatch, and Wasatch Academy to carry on in the twentieth century. The Mormon academies at Provo, Logan, Ephraim, Vernal, Ogden, Castle Dale, and Salt Lake City were, on the other hand, vigorously expanding in secondary education and the normal course training of teachers, fields in which they matched public school enrollment until the First World War. The big growth, however, was in public elementary schools, where nearly 60,000 children were enrolled and almost 35,000 were in average daily attendance. Superintendent John R: Park would shortly call for the consolidation of districts and a far greater financial outlay than the $500,000 which had been the annual educational outlay during the depression years.

Most aspirants for university degrees and professional training still left Utah, but in Salt Lake City, Logan, and Provo, institutions of higher education were taking shape. The University of Utah, started with high hopes in 1850 as the University of Deseret, was still largely concerned with secondary and normal courses and adult education, and it had not yet begun to move from its buildings at First North and Second West to Fort Douglas. But 500 students were now in attendance, the 1895 graduation exercises had seen nine baccalaureate degrees awarded, and President James E. Talmage and faculty, whose names now identify many campus facilities, were trying to build a university on an annual budget of $35,000.

If the churches were giving up some of their economic and political activities and transferring many of their educational functions to the state, they were by no means inactive. Most of the major Christian communions were represented in the church notices in the Salt Lake papers, and St. Mark's and Holy Cross hospitals were already important examples of the testimony of the deed. That Mormon-watching was still a mission of some of the gentile ministry had been apparent in the recent election and would become even more conspicuous when B. H. Roberts finally won a congressional election two years later. But the effort to rescue the Saints from their religious "delusions" had lost its thrust, and the new policy of peaceful coexistence was symbolized by the prayers which opened and closed the inauguration ceremonies.

January 4, 1896, was more than the birthday of a state. It was the wedding of Utah and the nation.

Sources: This is an excerpt from a larger article published under the same title, in the winter 1964 issue of Utah Historical Quarterly by the late Dr. Poll.